In a ___-___ communication, data delivery is guaranteed.
True or FalseConnection-oriented protocols have a higher overhead and place greater demands on bandwidth.
On the sending end, connection-oriented protocols assume that a lack of ____ is sufficient reason to retransmit.
____ protocols offer only a best-effort delivery mechanism.
True or FalseIn connectionless protocols, there is a confirmation that the data has been received.
____ communication requires far less overhead so it is popular in applications such as streaming audio and video, where a small number of dropped packets might not represent a significant problem.
____ protocol, which is defined in RFC 791, is the protocol used to transport data from one node on a network to another.

Internet Protocol (IP)
True or False? Internet Protocol (IP) is a connection-oriented protocol.
IP operates at the ___ layer of the OSI model.
network (3)
IP performs ___ and ___ for network transmissions.
True or FalseThe maximum transmission unit (MTU) size is limited in IP.
___ ___ protocol, which is defined in RFC 793, is a connection-oriented protocol.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
___ ___ protocol provides reliability to IP communications with flow control, sequencing, and error detection and correction.
Transfer Control Protocol (TCP)
Applications that need guaranteed delivery use the ___ protocol rather than the ___ protocol.
The three-step process used by TCP to establish and maintain a connection is called a ___-___ ___.
three-way handshake.
TCP connection procedure (three-way handshake)

  1. Host sends a message called a ___ to the target host.
  2. Target host opens a connection for the request and sends back an acknowledgment message called an ___ or ___. 
  3. The host that originated the request sends back another acknowledgment, saying that it has received the ___ message and the session is ready.

TCP operates at the ___ layer of the OSI model.
transport (4)
TCP is a reliable protocol because it has mechanisms that can accommodate and resolve ___.
___, which is defined in RFC 768, does not guarantee delivery like TCP does.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP is a “__ __ __” protocol; it
assumes that the data sent will reach its destination intact.
fire and forget
UDP operates at the ___ layer of the OSI model.
transport (4)
UDP does not establish a ___ between the sending and receiving hosts, which is why it is called a connectionless protocol.
UDP has much lower ___ than TCP.
A TCP packet header has __ fields, whereas a UDP packet header has only __ fields.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) uses ___ ___ Protocol to guarantee delivery of packets.
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
___ ___ protocol provides for the uploading and downloading of files from a remote host running the appropriate server software.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
FTP has security mechanisms used to ___ users.
FTP servers can be configured to accept anonymous logons. When this is done, the username is ___ and the password normally is the user’s ___ ___.
email address
FTP operates at the ___ layer of the OSI model.
application (7)
FTP assumes that files uploaded or downloaded are ___ ___ (___) files.
straight text (ASCII)
FTP transmits data in ___ format.
By using a ___ ___, an FTP hacker can copy packets from the network and read the contents.
packet sniffer
___ ___ ___ protocol, based on Secure Shell (SSH) technology, provides robust authentication between FTP sender and receiver.
Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)
True or FalseSecure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) provides encryption capabilities.
The SFTP acronym is used to describe both ___ File Transfer Protocol and ___ File Transfer
___ ___ ___ protocol, which is defined in RFC 1350, is an unsecured file transfer mechanism often used for simple downloads such as firmware.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
True or FalseTFTP offers directory navigation.
Unlike FTP, which uses ___ as its transport protocol, TFTP uses ___.
Because it uses UDP, TFTP is called a ___ file transfer method.
___ ___ ___ protocol, which is defined in RFC 821, defines how mail messages are sent between hosts.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
SMTP uses ___ connections to guarantee
error-free delivery of messages.
Because the destination host must always be available, SMTP mail systems ___ incoming mail so users can read it later.
___ can both send and receive mail. ___ and ___ can only receive mail.
___ ___ ___ protocol, which is defined in RFC 2068, enables text, graphics, multimedia, and other material to be downloaded from a server.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
HTTP defines what actions can be requested by a ___ and how a ___ should answer those requests.
HTTP clients (web browsers) send requests in ___ format and receive data in ___ format.
HTTP is a connection-oriented protocol that uses ___ as a transport protocol.
HTTP uses a __ __ __ to determine what page should be downloaded from the remote server.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
The __ __ __ contains the type of request (http://), the name of the server contacted (, and optionally the page requested (/support).
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
HTTPS uses __ __ __ to encrypt information sent between the client and host.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
For HTTPS to be used, both the ___ and ___ must support it.
Both ___, which is defined in RFC 1939, and ___, which is defined in RFC 1731, are mechanisms for downloading email from a server.
The password for a ___ mailbox is transmitted across the network in clear text.
True or FalseIMAP4 uses more sophisticated authentication than POP3, which makes it more difficult for people to determine a password.
___, which is defined in RFC 854, is a virtual terminal protocol that enables sessions to be opened on a remote host.
For many years, ___ was the method by which clients accessed multiuser systems such as mainframes and minicomputers. It also was the connection method of choice for UNIX systems. Today, it is still commonly used to access routers and other managed network devices.
___ is used to access UNIX and Linux systems.
___ ___ is a secure alternative to Telnet. It provides security by encrypting data as it travels between systems.
Secure Shell (SSH)
SSH provides more robust ___ systems than Telnet.
True or falseSSH1 and SSH2 are compatible.
True or falseSSH2 is more secure than SSH1.
Like Telnet, ___ ___ is associated primarily with UNIX and Linux systems
Secure Shell (SSH)
___ ___ is the foundational technology for Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).
Secure Shell (SSH)
___ ___ ___ protocol works with the IP layer to provide error reporting, flow control and route testing.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
The most common function of ICMP is the ___ utility.
ICMP returns error messages such as ___ ___ (when a destination cannot be contacted) and ___ ___ (when the Time To Live [TTL] of a datagram has been exceeded).
Destination unreachable
Time exceeded
To prevent packets from dropping and having to be re-sent, the receiving host sends ICMP ___ ___ messages to tell the sender to slow down.
source quench
__ __ protocol, which is defined in RFC 826, is responsible for resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
When a system attempts to contact another host, ___ protocol first determines whether the other host is on the same network it is on by looking at the IP address.
The ___ ___ is a table on the local system that stores mappings between data link layer addresses (the MAC address or physical address) and network layer addresses (IP addresses).
ARP cache
If the ARP cache doesn’t have an entry for the host, a broadcast on the local network asks the host with the target IP address to send back its ___ address.
True or FalseThe ARP request contains the MAC address of the system that sent it.
If the destination host is determined to be on a different subnet than the sending host, the ARP process is performed against the ___ ___ and then repeated for each step of the journey between the sending and receiving host.
default gateway
Entries to the ARP cache can be made either ___ or ___.
With ___ entries, the ARP cache is automatically updated so it is maintained with no intervention from the user.
Which are more common with the ARP cache: static or dynamic entries?
Static entries to the ARP cache are configured manually using the ___ command.
arp -s
A static entry remains in the ARP
cache until it is removed using the ___ command.
arp -d
__ __ __ protocol performs the same function as ARP, but in reverse.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
__ __ __ protocol resolves MAC addresses to IP addresses.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
__ __ __ protocol makes it possible for applications or systems to learn their own IP address from a router or Domain Name Service (DNS) server.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
__ __ protocol, which is defined in RFC 958, is the part of the TCP/IP protocol suite that facilitates the communication of time between systems.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
Email and directory services need time ___.
__ __ __ protocol is associated with posting and retrieving messages to and from newsgroups.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
NNTP, which is defined in RFC 977, is an application layer protocol that uses ___ as its transport mechanism.
Based on SSH technology, __ __ protocol provides a secure means to copy files between systems on a network.
Secure Copy Protocol (SCP)
A more secure substitute for Remote Copy Protocol (RCP), __ __ protocol is available as a command-line utility or
as part of application software for most commonly used computing platforms.
Secure Copy Protocol (SCP)
__ __ __ protocol provides a mechanism to access and query directory services systems such as Novell Directory Services (NDS) and Microsoft’s Active Directory.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
__ __ __ protocol is the protocol within the TCP/IP suite that manages multicast groups.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
__ __ __ protocol enables a computer on the Internet to target content to a specific group of computers.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
____ is a mechanism by which groups of network devices can send and receive data between the members of the group at one time, instead of separately sending messages to each device in the group.
___ addresses are from the IPv4 Class D range, including to
Common applications for ____ include groups of routers on an internetwork and videoconferencing clients.
__ __ __ protocol is a security protocol for client/server applications.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
___ ___ ___ is the successor to SSL.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Transport Layer Security is composed of two layers. The TLS__ protocol uses TCP for security. The TLS__ protocol is used for authentication.
__ __ protocol is for multimedia sessions such as audio/video conferencing, online gaming and Internet telephony.
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
SIP operates at the ___ layer of the OSI model.
application (7)
SIP uses ___ or ___ as a transport protocol.
The __-__ __ protocol is the Internet-standard protocol for the transport of real-time data, including audio and video.
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
RTP can use TCP or UDP as a transport protocol. Which is used more often?
RTP is used to transport __-__ data and is often used with VoIP.
The ___ part of RTP supports applications with real-time properties.
The ___ part of RTP supports real-time conferencing of groups of any size within an internet.
On TCP/IP-based networks, __ __ __ resolves hostnames ( to IP addresses.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
Prior to the widespread use of DNS, the ____ local file was used for name resolution.
A comment in the HOSTS file is preceded by a ____ symbol.
hash (#)
The ___ file can be used to resolve hosts that will not change often or at all.
DNS solves the problem of name resolution through servers configured to act as ___ servers.
A system that asks a DNS server for a hostname-to-IP address mapping is called a DNS ___ or ___.
___ ___ enables hosts to be dynamically registered with the DNS server.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS)
DNS operates in the DNS ___.
The top level of the ___ ___ includes domains such as .com and .edu, as well as domains for countries such as .uk
DNS namespace
The second level of the ___ ___ is comprised of subdomains or second-level domains associated with organizations or commercial companies, such as Red Hat and Microsoft.
DNS namespace
The domain name, along with any subdomains, is called the __ __ __ __ because it includes all the components from the top of the DNS namespace to the host.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
An example of a __ __ __ __ is, where www is the host, comptia is the second-level domain, and .org is the top-level domain.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
Although the primary function of DNS is to resolve hostnames to IP addresses, it can also perform IP address-to-hostname resolution. This process is
called ___ ___.
reverse lookup
Reverse lookup is accomplished by using ____ records.
pointer (PTR)
The most common entry in a DNS database is a ___ record, which maps a hostname to an IP address.
A (address)
In DNS, the ___ record maps entries to mail exchanger systems
In DNS, the ___ record create alias records for a system.
CNAME (canonical record name)
A DNS system can have an ___ record and
then multiple ____ entries for its aliases.
Rather than map to an actual IP address, the CNAME and MX record entries map to another ____, which DNS in turn can resolve to an IP address.
Each DNS name server maintains information about its zone, or domain, in a series of records known as DNS ___ records.
A DNS resource record of DNS zones and other DNS records is called a __ __ __.
Start of Authority (SOA)
A ___ ___ is the part of a domain for which an individual DNS server is responsible.
DNS zone
True or falseEach DNS zone contains multiple SOA records.
A ___ server contains a database of name resolution information used to resolve network names to network addresses.
Name Server (NS)
A DNS resource record that stores additional hostnames, or aliases, for hosts in the domain is called a ___ ___.
Canonical Name (CNAME)
____ records give a single computer multiple names (aliases).
A ____ to the CNAME is used to perform a reverse DNS lookup (resolve IP address to hostname).
An IPv6 Address (AAAA) stores information for IPv6 (___-bit) addresses. Used to map hostnames to an IP address for a host.
The ____ ____ record stores information about where mail for the domain should be delivered.
Mail Exchange (MX)
Workstations can be configured with the IP addresses of two DNS servers to provide ___ ___.
fault tolerance
True or falseIf DNS facilities are not accessible, the Internet effectively becomes unusable.
A Windows network can use ___ ___ ___ service to enable Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) names to be resolved to IP addresses.
Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)
NetBIOS name resolution is necessary on Windows networks so systems can locate and access each other by using the NetBIOS computer name rather than the ___ ___.
IP address
The NetBIOS name needs to be resolved to an ___ address and subsequently to a ___ address (by ARP).
A ___ ___ ___ server automatically performs NetBIOS name resolution.
Windows Internet Name Server (WINS)
If a WINS server is not available, NetBIOS name resolution can be performed statically using the ____ file.
A ___ is the default method for performing NetBIOS name resolution.
___ ___ ___ protocol facilitates network management functionality.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
True or FalseSNMP is a network management system (NMS)
SNMP is not a network management system (NMS). It is simply the protocol that makes NMS possible.
In an SNMP configuration, the ___ is the central communication point for all SNMP-enabled devices on the network.
On each device to be managed via SNMP, ___ ___ software is configured with the manager’s ___ ___.
SNMP agent
IP address
The SNMP agent reports an event to the SNMP manager via a message called a ___.
An SNMP management system is a computer running __ __ __ software.
Network Management System (NMS)
Most ___ ___ ___ applications use a graphical map of the network to locate a device and then query it.
Network Management System (NMS)
With ___ ___ ___ Protocol and a ___ ___ System, all devices on a network can be monitored from a single location.
Simple Network Managment Protocol (SNMP)
Network Management System (NMS)
It is common to implement a ___ ___ ___ on a secure server in a secure location.
Network Management System
Each device in the SNMP structure needs to have SNMP functionality enabled. This is performed through a software component called an ___.
An SNMP ___ is a device with a software component that facilitates communication with an SNMP manager.
True or FalseSNMP agent functionality is supported by almost any device designed to be connected to a network.
Agents can alert SNMP managers when a threshold is surpassed by sending a ___ to the Network Management System.
SNMP managers have only 3 commands: __, __ and __.
Get Next
SNMP uses a ___ ___ ___ to define what parameters are accessible, which of them are read-only, and which can be set.
Management Information Base (MIB)
An SNMP ___ is a logical group of systems.

True or False?

When a system is configured as part of a SNMP community, it communicates only with other devices that have the same community name.

Typically, two SNMP communities are defined by default: a ___ community, for read-only use, and a ___ community, for read-and-write operations.
Whether you use SNMP depends on how many ___ you have and how ___ your network infrastructure is.
Unlike SNMPv1 and SNMPv2, SNMPv3 supports ___ and ___.
___ ___ ___ protocol enables ranges of IP addresses to be defined on a system.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
In DHCP, a range of IP addresses is called a ___.
When a DHCP client is initialized, it asks the server for an address. The server assigns an address from the scope for a predetermined amount of time known as the ____.
At various points during the lease (normally __% and __%), the client attempts to renew the lease from the server. If the server cannot perform a renewal, the lease expires at 100 percent, and the client stops using the address.
Information supplied by the DHCP client includes the ___ ___ and ___ ___.
IP Address
subnet mask
DHCP can either supply a random address from the scope or a specific address known as a ___.
To use DHCP for a system and guarantee that it always has the same IP address, you use a ___.
DHCP is ___-dependent not ___-dependent. This means you can use a Linux DHCP server for a network with Windows clients or a Novell DHCP server with Linux clients.
When a DHCP system joins the network, it broadcasts a ___ packet that looks for a DHCP server.
If a DHCP server has a scope for the network from which the DHCPDISCOVER packet originated, it responds with a ___ packet.
When the client receives the ___ packet from the server, it looks at the offer to determine if it is suitable.
The DHCP client notifies the server that the DHCPOFFER has been accepted through a ___ packet.
The DHCP server finalizes the offer by sending the client an acknowledgment called a ___ packet.
After the client system receives the DHCPACK, it initializes the ___ ___ and can communicate on the network.
TCP/IP suite
In DNS, ___ define the DNS servers to be used and the order in which to use them.
DHCP can provide ___ suffixes to clients.
Four steps of the DHCP process:

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