An architecture model based on the OSI protocol suite, which defines and standardizes the flow of data between computers.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Seven-Layer Model
An architecture model based on the TCP/IP protocol suite, which defines and standardizes the flow of data between computers.
TCP/IP Model
An arrangement that governs the procedures used to exchange information between cooperating entities; usually includes how much information is to be sent, how often it is sent, how to recover from transmission errors, and who is to receive the information.
Protocol
A popular cabling for telephone and networks composed of pairs of wires twisted around each other at specific intervals.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
An electronic device that sits at the center of a star topology network, providing a common point for the connection of network devices.
Hub
A device that filters and forwards traffic based on some criteria.
Switch
Traditionally, an expansion card that enables a PC to link physically to a network.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
The part of a NIC that remembers the NIC’s own MAC address and attaches that address to outgoing frames.
Media Access Control (MAC)
The first 24 bits of a MAC address, assigned to the NIC manufactured by the IEEE.
Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI)
The last six digits of a MAC address, identifying the manufacturer’s unique serial number for that NIC.
Devie ID
An address burned into a ROM chip on a NIC. A MAC address is an example of this.
Physical Address
A defined series of binary data that is the basic container for a discrete amount of data moving across a network. They are created in Layer 2 of the OSI model.
Frames
A sequence of bits placed in a frame that is used to check the primary data for errors.
Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
A mathmatical method that is used to check for errors in long streams of transmitted data with high accuracy.
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
A frame or packet addressed to all machines, almost always limited to a broadcast domain.
Broadcast
The address a NIC attaches to a frame when it wants every other NIC on the network to read it.
Broadcast Address
The aspect of the NIC that talks to the operating system, places data coming from the sofware into frames, and creates the FCS on each frame.
Logical Link Control (LLC)
A programmable network address, unlike a physical address that is burned into ROM.
Logical Address
Each independent network in a TCP/IP internetwork.
Subnet
Special software that exists in every network-capable operating system that acts to create unique identifiers for each system.
Network Protocol
Part of the TCP/IP suite, operates at Layer 4 (transport) of the OSI seven-layer model.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
The internet standard protocol that handles the logical naming of the TCP/IP protocol using IP addresses.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The numeric address of a computer connected to a TCP/IP network, such as the internet.
IP Address
A device that connects separate networks and forwards a packet from one network to another based only on the network address for the protocol being used.
Router
Basic component of communication over a network. A group of bits of fixed maximum size and well-defined format that is switched and transmitted as a complete whole through a network.
Packet
Handles the process of differentiating among various types of connections on a PC.
Sessions Software
A protocol used by some older applications, most prominently TFTP, to transfer files.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
The connection-oriented payload of an IP packet. Works on the Transport layer.
TCP Segment
A connectionless networking container used in UDP communication.
UDP Datagram

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