What does the term TRANSMIT mean?
To issue signals to the network medium.



Transmission refers to what?

either the process of transmitting or the progress of signals after they have een transmitted.


In other words you could say "My NIC transmitted a message, but because the network is slow, the transmission took 10 seconds to reach the server."



What are Volts?

Strength of an electrical current. This is what analog and digital are measured in.
When talking about strength of a volt it is called a ?





A wave is measured by its strength at any given point in time. This is called____?




What is frequency?

the number of times that a waves aqmplitude cycles from its starting point, through its highest amplitude and its lowest amplitude, and back to its starting point over a fixed period of time.



Define hertz(Hz) 


cycles per second. This is what defines frequency 


What does phase refer to? 


The progress of a wave over time in relationship to a fixed point.


What is wavelength


Wavelength is the distance between corresponding points on a waves cycle. 


What is noise

Noise is any type of interference that may degrade a signal.


What are digital signals


Composed of pulses of precise, positive voltages and zero voltages. 


What is Overhead

Is is the term used by networking professionals to describe the nondata information that must accompnay data for a signal to be properly routed and interpreted by the network.


What is a modem


A modem is a device that functions as a modulator/demodulator. It modulates digital signals into analog signals at the transmitting end, then demodulates analog signals into digital signals at the receiving end. 



What is modulation?



A simple wave called a carrier wave is combined with another analog signal to produce a unique signal that gets transmitted from one node to another. Used in FM(frequency modulation)



What is FM?

Frequency modulation. In which data much travel along a particular frequency. (Radio)



What is AM?

The amplitude of the carrier signal is modified by the application of the data signal.



What is simplex?

When signals may travel in only one direction



What is half-duplex transmission?

signals may travel in both directions over a medium but in only one direction at a time.



What does full-duplex mean? Sometimes called simple duplex or bidirectional transmission.

Signals are free to travel in both directions over a medium simultaneously.



What is a channel?

 It is a distinct communciation path between nodes, much as a lane is a distinct transportation path on a freeway.


A form of transmission that allows multiple signals to travel simultanelously over one medium is known as ____________?




To carry multiple signals, the medium’s channel is logically separeted into multiple smaller channels called_______. (referring to mulitplexxing);



A required device that combines multiple signals into one channel at the sending end is called a _______
multiplexer or MUX
A required device that combines multiple signals into one channel at the recieving end is called a _______
demultiplexer or demux



What is TDM?

Time Division Multiplexing, it divides the channel into multiple intervals of time, or time slots.



What is statistical multiplexing?

Is similar to time divisoon miltiplexing but rather than assigning a separate slot to each node in succession the transmitter assigns slots to nodes according to priority and need.


What is WDM?

Wavelength division multiplexing is a technology used with fiber-optic cable. uses one fiber-optic connection to carry multiple light signals simultaneously.



What is DWDM?;


(Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) A single fiber in a fiber-optic cable can carry between 80 and 160 channels. Most modern fiber optic network.;

What is point-to-point transmission?
When a data transmission involves only one transmitter and only one reciever it is considered point to point.



What does broadcast mean?

Broadcast involves one transmitter and multiple recivers. For example, a tv station sends its signal to thousands of users.
What is webcasting?
Sending multiple video broadcasts to multiple nodes.



What does throughput, capacity and bandwidth mean?

Throughput is the measure of how much data is transmitted during a given period of time. It may also be called capacity or bandwidth.


What is bandwidth?;

It is the measure of the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that a medium can transmit.



What is broadband?

It is the form of transmission in which signals are modulated as radio frequency analog waves that use different frequency ranges.



What is EMI?

Electromagnetic interference.



What is RFI?

Radio Frequency Interference. This is caused by radio waves.



What is crosstalk?

It occurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the singal traveling over an adjacent wire or cable.


What is attenuation?;

Loss of a signal or strength.



What is an amplifier?

Electronic device that increases voltage or strength.



What is a repeater?


A device that regenerates a digital signal.

Explain Regeneration.
When digital signals are repeated they are actually retransmitted in their original form without the noise they may have accumulated previously. This is called regeneration.



What is latency?

Latency is referred to as delay. Time it takes to get from one place to another.


What is a populated segment?

It is part of a network that contains end nodes.


What is an unpopulated segment?

Also known as a link segment, it is part of the network that does not contain any end nodes, but simply connects two networking devices such as hubs.



What is media converter?


Is a peice of hardware that enables networks or segments running on different media to interconnect and exchange signals.

What is a transceiver?
A device that transmits and recieves signals. It is also known as a media converter.


What is conduit or pipeline?;


Use to help further protect and ward off interference of noise caused by possible EMI or maybe RMI.;

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