Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
Service in Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows Server 2008 that can automatically configure client IP addresses in the absence of a DHCP server. APIPA addresses do not contain a default gateway and can only be used to communicate on the local subnet.
CIDR notation
Most common means of expressing a CIDR network address, such as 192.168.1.0/24 or 192.168.1.128/25.
classful addressing
Means of segregating TCP/IP networks into Class A, Class B, and Class C networks based on the network address taking up the 1st, 1st and 2nd, or 1st and 3 octets of the IP address.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
Means of more granularly segregating TCP/IP networks based on the number of bytes used by the network address versus the host address.
default gateway
Allows a host to communicate with devices that reside on a remote network.
DHCP relay agent
Host that forwards DHCP requests to a DHCP server on a remote server, eliminating the need to deploy a DHCP server on each subnet.
dotted-decimal notation
Most common means of expressing an IPv4 address, such as 192.168.1.154.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Service used to automate the distribution of TCP/IP addresses and associated configuration information such as the subnet mask, default gateway, and preferred DNS servers.
Fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
DNS name comprised of the host name with the domain name appended to it, such as server1.contoso.com, where server1 is the host name and contoso.com is the domain name.
host
Computer, printer, or other physical device configured with a network interface card.
host address
Portion of an IP address that is unique to an individual device.
HOSTS files
Text files used to provide name resolution for early TCP/IP networks.
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
Commercial or not-for-profit entities that provide customers with a means of accessing the Internet.
IP address
Means of identifying a unique host on a TCP/IP network.
IP version 4 (IPv4)
Version of TCP/IP that has been most widely implemented on modern networks.
IP version 6 (IPv6)
Newer implementation of TCP/IP that includes a much larger address space and numerous security improvements over IPv4.
name resolution
Process of mapping an IP address to a human-readable “friendly” name, such as www.lucernepublishing.com.
network address
Portion of an IP address that is shared by all hosts on the same subnet.
network address translation (NAT)
Allows one or more private IP addresses to be mapped to one or more public IP addresses to allow hosts with private IP addresses to communicate on the Internet or another public network.
network protocols
Provide the logical “language” to allow computers to communicate across a physical network medium.
octets
Portion of an IP address that is 4 bytes in length.
routing
Process of transferring data across a network from one LAN to another.
static IP address
IP address that has been manually configured by an administrator.
subnet mask
Used to define which portion of an IP address is the network address and which portion is the host address.
Subnets
Logical grouping of computers within a TCP/IP network that is used to reduce network traffic and streamline administration.
Subnetting
Process of subdividing TCP/IP networks into smaller units called “subnets.”
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Most common network protocol in use today; the network protocol used on the Internet.

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