A network is a
group of computers that can share information through their interconnections
A network is made up of the following components:

  • Computers (often called nodes or hosts)
  • Transmission media–a path for electrical signals between devices
  • Network interfaces–devices that send and receive electrical signals
  • Protocols–rules or standards that describe how hosts communicate and exchange data

Peer-to-peer

In a peer-to-peer network, each host can provide network resources to other hosts or access resources located on other hosts, and each host is in charge of controlling access to those resources. Advantages of peer to peer networks include:

  • Easy implementation
  • Inexpensive

Disadvantages of peer to peer networks include:

  • Difficult to expand (not scalable)
  • Difficult to support
  • Lack centralized control
  • No centralized storage

Client/server Network

In a client/server network, hosts have specific roles. For example, some hosts are assigned server roles which allow them to provide network resources to other hosts. Other hosts are assigned client roles which allows them to consume network resources. Advantages of client/server networks include:

  • Easily expanded (scalable)
  • Easy support
  • Centralized services
  • Easy to backup

Disadvantages of client/server networks include:

  • Server operating systems are expensive
  • Requires extensive advanced planning

Management: Network
The term network often describes a network under a single organization with control over the entire network. This could be a local area network at a single location, or a wide area network used by a single business or organization. If, for example, two companies connected their internal networks to share data, you could call it one network. In reality, however, it is two networks, because each network is managed by a different company.
Management: Subnet

A subnet is a portion of a network with a common network address.

  • All devices on the subnet share the same network address, but have unique host addresses.
  • Each subnet in a larger network has a unique subnet address.
  • Devices connected through hubs or switches are on the same subnet; routers are used to connect multiple subnets.

Management: internetwork
A network that includes geographically disperse (WAN) connections that connect multiple LANs is often called an internetwork. Additionally, connecting two networks under different management is a form of internetworking, as data must travel between two networks.

You have implemented a network where hosts are assigned specific roles, such as for filesharing and printing. Other hosts access those resources but do not have the services of their own. What type of network do you have?

Extranet

 client/ server

 peer-to-peer

 intranet

The correct answer is client/server. In a client/server network, hosts have specific roles. For example, some hosts are assigned server roles which allows them to provide network resources to other hosts. Other hosts are assigned client roles which allows them to consume network resources. In a peer-to-peer network, each host can provide network resources to other hosts or access resources located on other hosts, and each host is in charge of controlling access to those resources. An intranet is a private network that uses Internet technologies services on eight in tried that are only available to hosts that are connected to the private network. An extranet is a private network that uses Internet technologies, but whose resources are made available to external (but trusted) users. For example, you might create a website on a private network that only users from a partner company can access.

You have implemented a network where each device provides shared files with all of the devices on the network. What type of network you have?

 

Multiple access

 

Polling

 

Peer to peer

 

client/server

The correct answer is peer-to-peer. In a peer-to-peer network, each host can provide network resources to other hosts or access resources located on other hosts, and each host is in charge of controlling access to those resources. In a client/server network, hosts have specific roles. For example, some hosts are assigned server roles which allows them to provide network resources to other hosts. Other hosts are assigned client roles which allows them to consume network resources. Polling is a media access method where a single device grants permission to other devices to access the network. Multiple access describes a media access method where each device determines when the medium is free.
Topology
 is the term used to describe how devices are connected and how messages flow from device to device. There are two types of network topologies:
2 types of network topologies

  • The physical topology describes the physical way the network is wired.
  • The logical topology describes the way in which messages are sent.

physical bus topology

consists of a trunk cable with nodes either inserted directly into the trunk, or nodes tapping into the trunk using offshoot cables called drop cables.

  • Signals travel from one node to all other nodes on the bus.
  • A device called a terminator is placed at both ends of the trunk cable.
  • Terminators absorb signals and prevent them from reflecting repeatedly back and forth on the cable.

The physical bus:

  • Requires less cable than the star
  • Can be difficult to isolate cabling problems

A broken cable anywhere on the bus breaks the termination and prevents communications between any device on the network.

A ring topology

connects neighboring nodes until they form a ring. Signals travel in one direction around the ring. In ring topologies, each device on the network acts as a repeater to send the signal to the next device. With a ring:

  • Installation requires careful planning to create a continuous ring.
  • Isolating problems can require going to several physical locations along the ring.
  • A malfunctioning node or cable break can prevent signals from reaching nodes further along on the ring.

A star topology

uses a hub or switch to concentrate all network connections to a single physical location. Today it is the most popular type of topology for a LAN. With the star:

  • All network connections are located in a single place, which makes it easy to troubleshoot and reconfigure.
  • Nodes can be added to or removed from the network easily.
  • Cabling problems usually affect only one node.
  • Requires more cable than any other topology. Every node has its own cable.

Mesh Topology

 

[image]

exists when there are multiple paths between any two nodes on a network. Mesh topologies are created using point-to-point connections. This increases the network’s fault tolerance because alternate paths can be used when one path fails. Two variations of mesh topologies exist:

  • Partial Mesh–Some redundant paths exist.
  • Full Mesh–Every node has a point-to-point connection with every other node.

Full mesh topologies are usually impractical because the number of connections increases dramatically with every new node added to the network. However, a full mesh topology becomes more practical through the implementation of an ad-hoc wireless network. With this topology, every wireless network card can communicate directly with any other wireless network card on the network. A separate and dedicated network interface and cable for each host on the network is not required.

Logical Topology – Bus

 

 

Logical Topology

Physical Topology

Description

Bus

Bus

Messages are sent to all devices connected to the bus.

Star

 

Logical Ring Topology

 

Logical Topology

Physical Topology

Description

Ring

Ring

Messages are sent from device-to-device in a predetermined order until they reach the destination device.

Star

 

Logical Star Topology

 

Logical Topology

Physical Topology

Description

Star

Star

Messages are sent directly to (and only to) the destination device.

 

What devices used to create a physical star topology?

 

Bridge

 

Router

 

switch

 

firewall

The correct answer is switch. A physical star topology uses a switch or a hub. Routers are used to connect multiple subnets together. A firewall is a router that performs filtering on packets or other information contained in network communications.

You have a small network that uses a hub to connect multiple devices. What physical topology is used?

 

Bus

 

Ring

 

Star

 

Mesh

The correct answer is star. A hub create a network with a physical star topology. The physical star topology uses a logical bus apology, where messages are sent to all devices connected to the hub. A mesh topology is a series of point-to-point links between devices. A ring topology uses a central device called an MSAU.

You have implemented an ad hoc wireless network that doesn’t employ a wireless access point. Every wireless network card can communicate directly with any other wireless network card on the network. What type of physical network topology has been implemented in this type of network?

 

Bus

 

Mesh

 

Star

 

Ring

 

Tree

The correct answer is mesh. This type of network uses a physical mesh topology. The key characteristics of a mesh topology are:

 

There’s no central connecting point

Any host can communicate directly with any other host on the network

 

A mesh network, such as this one, is usually impractical on a wired network. Each host would have to have a separate dedicated network interface cable for each host on the network. However, a mesh topology can be implemented with relative ease on a wireless network due to the lack of wires.

 

In which of the following topologies does each device on the network act as a repeater sending the signal to the next device?

 

Bus

 

star

 

ring

 

tree

The correct answer is ring. In ring topologies, each device on the network acts as a repeater to send a signal to the next device.

You have been asked to implement a network infrastructure that will accommodate failed connections. Which of the following network topologies provides redundancy for a failed link?

 

ring

 

mesh

 

bus

 

star

The correct answer is mesh. In a mesh topology, each network device is interconnected to all other network nodes. This creates multiple data paths and in the event of a failed link, the data has an alternate route to arrive at its destination.

You have a network that uses a logical ring topology. How do messages travel through the network?


Messages travel from one device to the next until they reach the destination device


Messages are sent to all devices connected to the network


Messages are sent to a central device which then forwards the message to the destination device


messages are sent directly to the destination device only

 

The correct answer is Messages travel from one device to the next until they reach the destination device. In a logical ring topology, messages travel to each device in turn. If the message is not intended for that device, the message is forwarded to the next device on the network.

 

 

You have a network that uses a logical bus topology. How do messages travel through the network?

 

Messages travel from one device to the next until they reach the destination device.

 

Messages are sent directly to the correct destination device

 

Messages are broadcast to all devices connected to the network.

 

Messages are sent to a central device which then forwards the message to the destination device.

The correct answer is messages are broadcast to all devices connected to the network. Messages sent using a physical bus topology are broadcast to all devices in the network. The device in the middle of the star (typically a hub), receives the message and forwards it on to all of the devices.

 

 

Which of the following topologies connects each device to a neighboring device?

 

Star

 

Bus

 

Tree

 

Ring

The correct answer is ring. In ring topologies, each device is connected to a neighboring device, until a ring is formed.

Which of the following topology connects all devices to a trunk cable?

 

Tree

 

Ring

 

Bus

 

Star

The correct answer is bus. The bus topology connects all devices to a trunk cable.

Which of the following topologies connects each network device to a central hub?

 

Star

 

Ring

 

bus

 

Mesh

 

The correct answer is star. Star topologies connect each device on the network to a central hub.

You want to implement a fault tolerant topology as you interconnect routers on your wide area network. Which of the following would meet your needs?

 

Star, Bus, Ring, Mesh

The correct answer is Mesh. A mesh topology has multiple connections at each node, increase the conductivity fault tolerance. None of the other topologies have native fault tolerance built in.
Network architecture
a set of standards for how computers are physically connected and how signals are passed between hosts.
Ethernet Network Architecture

Ethernet is a wired networking standard and is the most common networking architecture used in LANs (both in business and home networks).

Dial-up modem network architecture

Dial-up networking is a common way to connect a computer (often your home computer) to a remote network, such as the Internet or a business network. A modem on each computer uses the phone lines to send and receive data.

Digital Subscriber Line Network Architecture

DSL provides an Internet connection using regular telephone lines and a DSL modem to send and receive digital broadband signals. Unlike dial-up, DSL can be used with a single phone line without preventing use of the telephone for voice calls, so DSL is continuously connected to the Internet.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Network Architecture

ISDN is another alternative to traditional dial-up that can be used to connect to the Internet or to directly communicate with another computer connected to the ISDN network. ISDN is more common in Europe than in the U.S. ISDN sends digital signals and can use regular telephone wiring, but must be connected to a special ISDN network.

Cable Internet Network Architecture

Cable uses coaxial wiring, originally developed to carry cable television signals, to provide high-speed broadband access to the Internet. Broadband cable uses a cable modem and, like DSL, is continuously connected; however, cable Internet connection rates are generally faster than those offered through DSL.

Wireless Network Architecture

Wireless networking, or Wi-Fi, uses radio waves or infrared light (with the air as the transmission medium) to send data between hosts. Wireless networks are common in homes, businesses, airports, and hotels. Most wireless networks connect into larger wired networks (such as LANs) which are in turn connected to the Internet.

Protocol/Protocol Suite Definition

a set of standards for communication between network hosts. Protocols often provide services, such as e-mail or file transfer. Most protocols are not intended to be used alone, but instead rely on and interact with other dependent or complimentary protocols. A group of protocols that is intended to be used together is called a protocol suite. The Internet protocol suite (normally referred to as TCP/IP) is the most widely used protocol suite today.

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Web Browsing

Category Protocol Description
Web browsing HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) HTTP is used by Web browsers and Web servers to exchange files (such as Web pages) through the World Wide Web and intranets. HTTP can be described as an information requesting and responding protocol. It is typically used to request and send Web documents, but is also used as the protocol for communication between agents using different TCP/IP protocols.
HTTP over SSL (HTTPS) HTTPS is a secure form of HTTP that uses SSL to encrypt data before it is transmitted.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Security Protocols #1 – SSL

 

Category

Protocol

Description

Security protocols

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

SSL secures messages being transmitted on the Internet. It uses RSA for authentication and encryption. Web browsers use SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) to ensure safe Web transactions. URLs that begin with https:// trigger your Web browser to use SSL.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Security Protocols #2 – TLS

 

Category

Protocol

Description

Security protocols

Transport Layer Security (TLS)

TLS ensures that messages being transmitted on the Internet are private and tamper proof. TLS is implemented through two protocols:

[image]   TLS Record–Can provide connection security with encryption (with DES for example).

[image]   TLS Handshake–Provides mutual authentication and choice of encryption method.

TLS version 1.2 (TLS1.2) is an updated version which improves on past security flaws found in TLS 1.0 and 1.1

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – File Transfer 1 of 4 – FTP

 

Category

Protocol

Description

File transfer

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

FTP provides a generic method of transferring files. It can include file security through usernames and passwords, and it allows file transfer between dissimilar computer systems. FTP can transfer both binary and text files, including HTML, to another host. FTP URLs are preceded by ftp:// followed by the DNS name of the FTP server. To log in to an FTP server, use: ftp://[email protected].

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – File Transfer 2 of 4 –

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

 

 

Category

Protocol

Description

File Transfer

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

TFTP is similar to FTP. It lets you transfer files between a host and an FTP server. However, it provides no user authentication and no error detection. TFTP is often used when transferring files such as video, audio, or images. Because it does not perform error detection, TFTP is faster than FTP, but might be subject to file errors.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – File Transfer Flashcard 3 of 4 – Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

 

 

Category

Protocol

Description

File Transfer

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

SFTP is a file transfer protocol that uses Secure Shell (SSH) to secure data transfers. SSH ensures that SFTP transmissions use encrypted commands and data which prevent data from being transmitted over the network in clear text.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – File Transfer 1 of 4 – Secure Copy Protocol

 

 

Category

Protocol

Description

File Transfer

Secure Copy (SCP)

SCP is associated with Unix/Linux networks and used to transfer files between systems. Like SFTP, SCP relies on SSH to ensure that data and passwords are not transmitted over the network in clear text.

 

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Email 1 of 3 – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

 

 

Category

Protocol

Description

Email

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

SMTP is used to route electronic mail through the internetwork. SMTP is used:

[image]   Between mail servers for sending and relaying mail.

[image]   By all e-mail clients to send mail.

[image]   By some e-mail client programs, such as Microsoft Outlook, for receiving mail from an Exchange server.

 

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Email –  2 of 3 – Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)

 

 

Category

Protocol

Description

Email

Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)

 

POP3 is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite and is used to retrieve e-mail from a remote server to a local client over a TCP/IP connection. By default, most POP3 clients download e-mail messages then delete them from the server. However, newer POP3 clients provide an option that allows e-mail messages to be left on the server after download.

An e-mail client that uses POP3 for receiving mail uses SMTP for sending mail.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Email –  3 of 3 – Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4)

 

 

Category

Protocol

Description

Email

Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4)

IMAP4 is an e-mail retrieval protocol designed to enable users to access their e-mail from various locations without the need to transfer messages or files back and forth between computers. Messages remain on the remote mail server and are not automatically downloaded to a client system.

An e-mail client that uses IMAP4 for receiving mail uses SMTP for sending mail.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Network services –  1 of 4 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

 

DHCP is a method for automatically assigning addresses and other configuration parameters to network hosts. Using a DHCP server, hosts receive configuration information at startup, reducing the amount of manual configuration required on each host.
Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Network services –  2 of 4 – Domain Name System (DNS)
DNS is a system that is distributed throughout the internetwork to provide address/name resolution. For example, the name www.mydomain.com would be identified with a specific IP address.
Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Network services –  3 of 4 – Network Time Protocol (NTP)
NTP is used to communicate time synchronization information between systems on a network.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Network services –  4 of 4 – Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

 

LDAP is used to allow searching and updating of a directory service. The LDAP directory service follows a client/server model. One or more LDAP servers contain the directory data, the LDAP client connects to an LDAP Server to make a directory service request.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Network management-  1 of 3 – Simple Network management Protocol

 

SNMP is a protocol designed for managing complex networks. SNMP lets network hosts exchange configuration and status information. This information can be gathered by management software and used to monitor and manage the network.
Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Network management-  2 of 3 – Remote Terminal Emulation (Telnet)
Telnet allows an attached computer to act as a dumb terminal, with data processing taking place on the TCP/IP host computer. It is still widely used to provide connectivity between dissimilar systems. Telnet can also be used to test a service by the use of HTTP commands.
Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Network management-  3 of 3 – Secure Shell (SSH)
SSH allows for secure interactive control of remote systems. SSH uses RSA public key cryptography for both connection and authentication. SSH uses the IDEA algorithm for encryption by default, but is able to use Blowfish and DES. SSH is a secure and acceptable alternative to Telnet.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Transport protocols–  1 of 2 – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

 

TCP provides services that ensure accurate and timely delivery of network communications between two hosts. TCP provides the following services to ensure message delivery:

  • Sequencing of data packets
  • Flow control
  • Error checking

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Transport protocols–  2 of 2 – User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

 

UDP is a host-to-host protocol like TCP. However, it does not include mechanisms for ensuring timely and accurate delivery. Because it has less overhead, it offers fast communications, but at the expense of possible errors or data loss.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Control protocols–  1 of 2 – Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

 

ICMP works closely with IP in providing error and control information, by allowing hosts to exchange packet status information, which helps move the packets through the internetwork. Two common management utilities, ping and traceroute, use ICMP messages to check network connectivity. ICMP also works with IP to send notices when destinations are unreachable, when devices’ buffers overflow, the route and hops packets take through the network, and whether devices can communicate across the network.

 

Common TCP/IP Protocols: Category – Control protocols–  1 of 2 – Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP)

 

IGMP is a protocol for defining host groups. All group members can receive broadcast messages intended for the group (called multicasts). Multicast groups can be composed of devices within the same network or across networks (connected with a router).
The ?????? protocol suite was developed to work independently of the physical network architecture. You can use a wide variety of architectures with the ?????? protocol suite.
TCP/IP

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

 

You are asked to recommend an e-mail retrieval protocol for a company’s sales team. The  sales team needs to access e-mail from various locations and possibly different computers. The sales team does not want to worry about transferring e-mail messages or files back and forth between these computers.  Which e-mail protocol was designed for this purpose?

 

IMAP, POP4, POP3, MFTP, SMTP

The correct answer is IMAP. The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an e-mail retrieval protocol designed to enable users to access their e-mail from various locations without the need to transfer messages or files back and forth between computers. Messages remain on the remote mail server and are not automatically downloaded to a client system. POP3 is an e-mail retrieval protocol that downloads and deletes messages from a mail server. POP3 is well-suited for reading e-mail off-line; however, you need to go online when you want to receive and send your messages. Once your new messages have been downloaded to your computer you can log off to read them. This option is often used when e-mail is received over a dial-up connection.

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

 

Your company has just acquired another company in the same city.  You are given the task of integrating the two e-mail systems so that messages can be exchanged between the e-mail servers.  However, each network uses an e-mail package from a different vendor.  Which TCP/IP protocol will enable messages to be exchanged between systems?

 

FTP, SMTP, POP3, IMAP4

 

The correct answer is SMTP. The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) specifies how messages are exchanged between e-mail servers. POP3 and IMAP4 are used by e-mail clients to download e-mail messages from e-mail servers. FTP is a file transfer protocol. ICMP is used in ping and trace route for communicating network communication information.

Testout.com exam question section 1.3


Which of the following protocols allows hosts to exchange messages to indicate problems with packet delivery?


DHCP, ICMP, ARP, TCP, IGMP

The correct answer is ICMP. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) allows hosts to exchange messages to indicate the status of a packet as it travels through the network.

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

 

You have a large TCP/IP network and want to keep hosts real-time clock synchronized. What protocol should you use?

 

SMTP, SAP, NNTP,SNMP, NTP

The correct answer is NTP. The network time protocol (NTP) lets you keep clocks synchronized.

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

 

Which of the following TCP/IP protocols do e-mail clients use to download messages from a remote mail server?

 

SNMP, SPC, SMTP, FTP, POP3

 

The correct answer is POP3. The POP3 protocol is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite and used to retrieve e-mail from a remote server to a local client over a TCP/IP connection. SNMP is a protocol used to monitor network traffic. SMTP is a TCP/IP protocol used to send e-mail. FTP is used to transfer files.

 

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

which of the following protocols stores e-mail on the mail server and gives users a choice to download mail or keep it on the server? (Select two)


POP3, IMAP4, SMTP, NTP

The two correct answers are POP3 and IMAP4. IMAP4 allows a mail server to hold messages for a client. POP3 is a simpler protocol than IMAP4 that downloads e-mail messages and deletes them from the server by default, but most newer POP3 clients provide an option to leave mail on the server after download. SMTP allows a user to send e-mail to a server. The network time protocol synchronizes the clocks of all computers on a network.

 

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

you want to allow your users to download files from a server running the TCP/IP protocol. You want to require user authentication to gain access to specific directories on the server. Which TCP/IP protocol should you implement to provide this capability?


HTTP, TCP, IP, FTP, TFTP, HTML

The correct answer is FTP. You should implement the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). It enables file transfers and supports user authentication. The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) enables file transfer, but does not support user authentication.

 

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

you want to transfer a file from a UNIX server to a Windows 2000 computer. Which of the following utilities could you use to do this? Select all that apply.


FTP, Tracert, TFTP, Telnet, Netstat, NBTSTAT,

The correct answers are FTP & TFTP. UNIX computers use TCP/IP, as do Windows 2000 computers. Therefore, the TCP/IP utilities FTP & TFTP will both allow you to transfer files.

 

Testout.com exam question section 1.3

what protocol sends e-mail to a mail server?


TFTP, SMTP, POP3, SNMP, FTP

the correct answer is SMTP. SMTP sends email to a mail server.

Testout.com Network Section 1.4 Intenet Connectivity Parameters.

 

Parameter: IP address

Parameter Purpose
IP address The IP address Identifies both the logical host and the logical network addresses.

  • Each host on the entire network must have a unique IP address.
  • Two devices on the same subnet must have IP addresses with the same network portion of the address.
  • Two devices on the same subnet must have unique host portions of the IP address.
  • Do not use the first or the last host address on a subnet address range.

 

Testout.com Network Section 1.4 Intenet Connectivity Parameters.

 

Parameter: Subnet Mask

The subnet mask identifies which portion of the IP address is the network address, and which portion is the host address. Two devices on the same subnet must be configured with the same subnet mask.

 

Testout.com Network Section 1.4 Intenet Connectivity Parameters.

 

 

 

Parameter: Default gateway

 

The default gateway identifies the router to which communications for remote networks are sent. The default gateway address is the IP address of the router interface on the same subnet as the local host. Without a default gateway set, most clients will be unable to communicate with hosts outside of the local subnet.

 

Testout.com Network Section 1.4 Intenet Connectivity Parameters.

 

 

 

Parameter: DNS server

 

The DNS server address identifies the DNS server that is used to resolve host names to IP addresses.

 

Testout.com Network Section 1.4 Intenet Connectivity Parameters.

 

 

 

Parameter: Host Name

 

The host name identifies the logical name of the local system.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model definition
a theoretical way of classifying and talking about the complex process of sending data on a network. The most widely used method for understanding and talking about network communications. Only a theoretical model that defines standards for programmers and network administrators, not a model of actual physical layers.

 

advantages of the OSI model

 

the OSI model to discuss networking concepts has the following advantages:

  • Provides a common language or reference point between network professionals
  • Divides networking tasks into logical layers for easier comprehension
  • Allows specialization of features at different levels
  • Aids in troubleshooting
  • Promotes standards of interoperability between networks and devices
  • Provides modularity in networking features (developers can change features without changing the entire approach)

limitations of the OSI model.

  • OSI layers are theoretical and do not actually perform real functions.
  • Industry implementations rarely have a layer-to-layer correspondence with the OSI layers.
  • Different protocols within the stack perform different functions that help send or receive the overall message.
  • A particular protocol implementation may not represent every OSI layer (or may spread across multiple layers).

Layers of the OSI model: Top to Bottom Mnemonic

 

Layer

Name

Mnemonic
(Top to bottom)

Layer 7

Application

All

Layer 6

Presentation

People

Layer 5

Session

Seem

Layer 4

Transport

To

Layer 3

Network

Need

Layer 2

Data Link

Data

Layer 1

Physical

Processing

 

Layers of the OSI model: Bottom to Top Mnemonic

 

Layer

Name

Mnemonic
(Bottom to top)

Layer 7

Application

Away

Layer 6

Presentation

Pizza

Layer 5

Session

Sausage

Layer 4

Transport

Throw

Layer 3

Network

Not

Layer 2

Data Link

Do

Layer 1

Physical

Please

 

OSI model layer – Layer 7 – Application Layer

The Application layer integrates network functionality into the host operating system, and enables network services. The Application layer does not include specific applications that provide services, but rather provides the capability for services to operate on the network.


Most Application layer protocols operate at multiple layers down to the Session and even Transport layers. However, they are classified as Application layer protocols because they start at the Application layer (the Application layer is the highest layer where they operate). Services typically associated with the Application layer include:

  1. HTTP

  2. Telnet

  3. FTP

  4. TFTP

  5. SNMP

 

 

OSI model layer – Layer 6 – Presentation Layer

 

The Presentation layer formats or “presents” data into a compatible form for receipt by the Application layer or the destination system, such as the presentation of an ASCII-coded file. Specifically, the Presentation layer ensures:

  • Formatting and translation of data between systems.
  • Negotiation of data transfer syntax between systems, through converting character sets to the correct format.
  • Encapsulation of data into message envelopes by encryption and compression.
  • Restoration of data by decryption and decompression.

 

OSI model layer – Layer 5 – Session Layer

 

The Session layer’s primary function is managing the sessions in which data is transferred. Functions at this layer include:

  • Management of multiple sessions (each client connection is called a session). A server can concurrently maintain thousands of sessions.
  • Assignment of the session ID number to each session to keep data streams separate.
  • Set up, maintain, and tear down communication sessions.

OSI model layer – Layer 4 – Transport Layer

The Transport layer provides a transition between the upper and lower layers of the OSI model, making the upper and lower layers transparent from each other. Transport layer functions include:

  • End-to-end flow control.
  • Port and socket numbers.
  • Segmentation, sequencing, and combination.
  • Connection services, either reliable (connection-oriented) or unreliable (connectionless) delivery of data.

Data at the Transport layer is referred to as a segment.

 

OSI model layer – Layer 3 – Network Layer

 

The Network layer describes how data is routed across networks and on to the destination. Network layer functions include:

  • Identifying hosts and networks using logical addresses.
  • Maintaining a list of known networks and neighboring routers.
  • Determining the next network point to which data should be sent. Routers use a routing protocol to take into account various factors such as the number of hops in the path, link speed, and link reliability to select the optimal path for data.

Data at the Network layer is referred to as a packet.

 

OSI model layer – Layer 2 – Data Link Layer – Logical Link Control (LLC)

 

The Data Link layer defines the rules and procedures for hosts as they access the Physical layer. These rules and procedures specify or define:

  • How hosts on the network are identified (physical or MAC address).
  • How and when devices can transmit on the network medium (media access control and logical topology).
  • How to verify that the data received from the Physical layer is error free (parity and CRC).
  • How devices control the rate of data transmissions between hosts (flow control).

Data at the Data Link layer is referred to as a frame.

OSI model layer – Layer 2 – Data Link Layer –  Media Access Control

Yes this is the same information as the last card. This part of the table covered both the LLC and the MAC cells.

 

The Data Link layer defines the rules and procedures for hosts as they access the Physical layer. These rules and procedures specify or define:

  • How hosts on the network are identified (physical or MAC address).
  • How and when devices can transmit on the network medium (media access control and logical topology).
  • How to verify that the data received from the Physical layer is error free (parity and CRC).
  • How devices control the rate of data transmissions between hosts (flow control).

Data at the Data Link layer is referred to as a frame.

 

OSI model layer – Layer 1 – Physical Layer

 

The Physical layer of the OSI model sets standards for sending and receiving electrical signals between devices. Protocols at the Physical layer identify:

  • How digital data (bits) are converted to electric pulses, radio waves, or pulses of lights.
  • Specifications for cables and connectors.
  • The physical topology, including wireless access points.

Data at the Physical layer is referred to as bits.

TCP/IP Network Model
incorporates the general concepts and structure of the OSI model. The layers of the TCP/IP model are as follows:

Application

Host to Host

Internet

Network Access

The TCP/IP model focuses specifically on the functions in the Internet layer and the Host-to-Host layer. All other functions of the traditional OSI model are encompassed in the first and fourth layers.

TCP/IP networking model  – Application Layer

The Application layer corresponds to the Session, Presentation, and Application layers of the OSI model. Protocols associated with the Application layer include FTP, HTTP, Telnet, Smtp, DNS, and SNMP.

TCP/IP networking model  – Host to Host Layer

The Host-to-host layer is comparable to the Transport layer of the OSI model and is responsible for error checking and reliable packet delivery. Here, the data stream is broken into segments that must be assigned sequence numbers so that the segments can be reassembled correctly on the remote side after they are transported. Protocols associated with the Host-to-host layer include Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and User-Datagram Protocol (UDP).

TCP/IP networking model  – Internet Layer

The Internet layer is comparable to the Network layer of the OSI model. It is responsible for moving packets through a network. This involves addressing of hosts and making routing decisions to identify how the packet traverses the network. Protocols associated with the Internet layer include Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

 

TCP/IP networking model  – Network Access Layer

 

The Network Access layer corresponds to the functions of the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. It is responsible for describing the physical layout of the network and how messages are formatted on the transmission medium.

The Data Link Layer of the OSI model is comprised of two sub layers. What are they? (Select two.)

 

LLC, LAT, MAC, DLC, SAN,

The correct answers are LLC & MAC. The data link layer is split into the following sub layers:

  • Logical Link control (LLC) sublayer – provides the operating system link to the  device driver.
  • Media access control (MAC) sublayer – translates generic network request into device specific terms.

Which of the following tasks is associated with the session layer?

 

Host ID number assignment

 

Acknowledgment coordination

 

Connection establishment

 

transmission synchronization

The correct answer is connection establishment. Connection establishment is controlled through session layer protocols.

What is the basic purpose of the OSI physical layer?

 

Coordinates rules for managing network servers

 

Defines basic physical structures, such as disks.

 

Coordinates rules for routing packets.

 

Coordinates rules for transmitting bits.

 

The correct answer is Coordinates rules for transmitting bits. The OSI physical layer coordinates rules for transmitting bits.

 

Which three of the following functions are performed by the OSI transport layer?

 

Reliable message delivery, Path identification and selection, Data segmentation and reassembly, consistent data formatting between dissimilar systems, end to end flow control, format packets for delivery through the media, control media access, logical topology, and device identification

The correct answers are reliable message delivery, data segmentation and reassembly, and end to end flow control. The transport layer is responsible for taking upper layer data, breaking it into segments, and providing for reliable communications through end to end flow control and error correction and detection. Transmitting messages through the media is performed at the physical layer. Media access, logical topology and device identification occurs at the data link layer. Path identification and selection is a function of the network layer. Data formatting is performed at the presentation layer.

The UDP transport protocol provides which of the following features? (Select all that apply.)

 

Sequence numbers and acknowledgments

 

Connectionless datagram services

 

Low overhead

 

guaranteed delivery

The correct answers are connectionless datagram services and low overhead. UDP is a connectionless protocol used by applications that need low overhead and do not require guaranteed delivery

In the OSI model, what is the primary function of the network layer?

 

Transmits data frames,


routes messages between networks,


ensures that packets are delivered with no loss or duplication,


allows applications to establish, use, and end a connection.

 

The correct answer is routes messages between networks. The network layer is responsible for routing messages between networks.

In the OSI model, which of the following functions are performed at the presentation layer? (Select two.)

 

Maintain separate client connections,

 

encrypt and compress data,

 

specify data format (such as file formats),

 

provide network services, handle general network access, flow control, and error recovery,

 

transmit data frames

The correct answers are encrypt and compress data and specify data format (such as file formats). The presentation layer encrypts data, changes and converts character sets, and compresses data. File formats (such as JPEG, Windows media video, and wave format) are part of the presentation layer.


The application layer provides network services. The session layer maintains separate client connections through session IDs, and maintains those sessions. Flow control and error detection are provided at both the transport layer and the data link layer. Transmitting frames happens at the physical layer.

Which OSI model layer is responsible for guaranteeing reliable message delivery?

 

Transport

 

Session

 

Data link

 

application

The correct answer is transport. The transport layer is responsible for connection services that provide reliable message delivery through error detection and correction mechanisms. Specifically the TCP protocol provides these services.


The application layer integrates network functionality into the host operating system, and enables network services. The session layer’s primary function is managing the sessions in which data is transferred. The data link layer defines the rules and procedures for hosts as they access the physical layer.

Which two of the following are included as part of data link layer specifications?

 

Synchronizing individual bits as they are transmitted through the network.

 

Controlling how messages are propagated to the network.

 

Composition of electrical signals as they pass through the transmission medium.

 

Identifying physical network devices.

The correct answers are controlling how messages are propagated through the network and identifying physical network devices. The data link layer controls identifying devices on a network as well is how messages travel through the network (the logical topology). The other functions listed here are performed by the physical layer.

Which of the following protocols includes extensive error checking to ensure that transmission is sent and received without mistakes?

 

TCP

 

UDB

 

UDP

 

UCP

The correct answer is TCP. The TCP protocol includes error-checking.

Which of the following are functions of the Mac sublayer? (Select two.)

 

Mapping hardware addresses to link layer addresses

 

Creating routing tables based on Mac addresses

 

Letting devices on the network have access to the LAN

 

defining a unique hardware address for each device on the network

The correct answers are letting devices on the network have access to the lan and defining a unique hardware address for each device on the network.

 

The Mac sublayer finds a unique Mac or datalink address for each device on the network. This address is usually assigned by the manufacturer. The Mac sublayer also provides devices with access to the network media.

Which of the following is performed at the physical layer of the OSI model?

 

Movement of data across network cables

 

provision of an environment in which to run network applications

 

conversion identification

 

enablement of network services

 

DATA translation

The correct answer is movement of data across network cables. The physical layer is concerned with how to transmit data and how to connect network hosts.

You are an application developer and are writing a program to exchange video files through a TCP/IP network. You need to select a transport protocol that will guarantee delivery. Which TCP/IP protocol which you implement that provides this capability?

 

FTP, RIP, TFTP, IP, UDP, TCP

The correct answer is TCP. Write the application to use the transmission control protocol (TCP). TCP guarantees delivery through error-checking and acknowledgments.

In the OSI model, which of the following functions are performed at the application layer? (Select all that apply.)

 

Data translation

 

Conversation identification

 

Enabling communication between network clients and services

 

integration of network functionality into the host operating system

The correct answers are enabling communication between network clients and services and integration of network functionality into the host operating system.

 

The application layer enables network services, and integrates network functionality into the host operating system.  Applications actually run above the OSI application layer.

 

 Conversation identification is accomplished at the session layer through connection or transaction ID numbers. Data translation is performed at the presentation layer

 

Twisted pair cabling is composed of the following components:

  • Two wires that carry the data signals (one conductor carries a positive signal; one carries a negative signal). They are made of 22 or 24 gauge copper wiring.
  • PVC or plenum plastic insulation surrounds each wire. Plenum cable is fire resistant and non-toxic. It must be used when wiring above ceiling tiles. PVC cable cannot be used to wire above ceilings because it is toxic when burned.
  • Two wires are twisted to reduce the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk. Because the wires are twisted, EMI should affect both wires equally and can be cancelled out.
  • Multiple wire pairs are bundled together in an outer sheath. Twisted pair cable can be classified according to the makeup of the outer sheath:
    • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) has a grounded outer copper shield around the bundle of twisted pairs or around each pair. This provides added protection against EMI.
    • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) does not have a grounded outer copper shield. UTP cables are easier to work with and are less expensive than shielded cables.    

different unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable types (categories) – phone cable

Type

Connector

Description

Phone cable

RJ-11

Used to connect a PC to a phone jack in a wall outlet to establish a dial-up Internet connection.
Has two pairs of twisted cable (a total of 4 wires).

The table below describes the different unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable types (categories) – category 3

 

Type

Connector

Description

Cat 3

RJ-45

Designed for use with 10 megabit Ethernet or 16 megabit token ring.

Different unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable types (categories) – Category 5

Type

Connector

Description

Cat 5

RJ-45

Supports 100 megabit Ethernet and ATM networking. Cat 5 specifications also support gigabit (1000 Mb) Ethernet.

Different unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable types (categories) – Category 5e

Type

Connector

Description

Cat 5e

RJ-45

Similar to Cat 5 but provides better EMI protection. Supports 100 megabit, gigabit, and 10 gigabit Ethernet.

Different unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable types (categories) – Category 6 

 

Type

Connector

Description

Cat 6

RJ-45

Supports 10 gigabit Ethernet and high-bandwidth, broadband communications.
Cat 6 cables often include a solid plastic core that keeps the twisted pairs separated and prevents the cable from being bent too tightly.
Additional standards for Cat 6 include Cat 6a (advanced) and Cat 6e (enhanced) which provide better protection against EMI.

Each type of UTP cable can be substituted for ?????? but not ??????

Each type of UTP cable can be substituted for any category below it, but never for a category above.

 

For example, Cat 6 can be substituted for a task requiring Cat 5e; however, neither Cat 5 nor Cat 3 should be used for this particular task.

 

the above and below references their position on the table in the informational fact sheet. 

Types of connectors used with twisted pair cables: RJ-11

The table below describes the two types of connectors used with twisted pair cables.

 

Connector Description
RJ-11

[image]

  • Has 4 connectors
  • Supports up to 2 pairs of wires
  • Uses a locking tab to keep connector secure in outlet
  • Used primarily for telephone wiring
 

Types of connectors used with twisted pair cables: RJ-45

 

Connector

Description

RJ-45

[image]

  • Has 8 connectors
  • Supports up to 4 pairs of wires
  • Uses a locking tab to keep connector secure in outlet
  • Used for Ethernet and some token ring connections

Coaxial cable is an ????? technology that is usually implemented with a ?????? topology. It is not suitable for ?????? or ?????? topologies because ??????. It is composed of ??????, which share ????, within ??????.
Coaxial cable is an older technology that is usually implemented with a bus topology. It is not suitable for ring or star topologies because the ends of the cable must be terminated. It is composed of two conductors, which share a common axis, within a single cable.
Coaxial cable is built with the following components:

  • Two concentric metallic conductors: The insulator, which surrounds the inner conductor, keeps the signal separated from the mesh conductor. It is made of PVC plastic.
    • The inner conductor, which carries data signals. It is made of copper or copper coated with tin.
    • The mesh conductor is a second physical channel that also grounds the cable. It is made of aluminum or copper coated tin.
  •  
  • The mesh conductor, which surrounds the insulator and grounds the cable. It is made of aluminum or copper coated tin.
  • The PVC sheath, which is the cable encasement. It surrounds and protects the wire. It is made of PVC plastic. 

Coaxial cable has the following advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages Disadvantages
  • Highly resistant to EMI (electromagnetic interference)
  • Highly resistant to physical damage
  • Expensive
  • Inflexible construction (difficult to install)
  • Unsupported by newer networking standards   

different coaxial cable grades.

Grade Uses Resistance Rating
RG-58 10Base2 Ethernet networking (also called Thinnet) 50 ohms
RG-59 Cable TV and cable networking 75 ohms
RG-6 Cable TV, satellite TV, and cable networking
RG-6 has less signal loss than RG-59, and is a better choice for networking applications, especially where longer distances (over a few feet) are involved.
75 ohms
RG-8 10Base5 Ethernet networking (also called Thicknet) 50 ohms

When using coaxial cables, it is important to use cables with the same ??????
resistance (impedance) rating.
Coaxial cable connector types – f type

Connector

Description

F-Type

[image]

  • Twisted onto the cable
  • Used to create cable and satellite TV connections
  • Used to connect a cable modem to a broadband cable connection
looks like the connector for your cable tv

Coaxial cable connector types – BNC

Connector

Description

Coaxial cable connector types – BNC

[image]

  • Molded onto the cable
  • Used in 10Base2 Ethernet networks
google the image if you need to.

Coaxial cable connector types – AUI Google the image

Connector

Description

AUI

[image]

  • Is a DB15 serial connector
  • Used in 10Base5 Ethernet networks

 

 

To connect computers using fiber optic cables, you need
two fiber strands. One strand transmits signals, and the other strand receives signals.
Fiber optic cabling is composed of the following components:

  • The core carries the signal. It is made of plastic or glass.
  • The cladding maintains the signal in the center of the core as the cable bends.
  • The sheathing protects the cladding and the core.

Fiber optic cabling offers the following advantages:

  • Totally immune to EMI (electromagnetic interference)
  • Highly resistant to eavesdropping
  • Supports extremely high data transmission rates
  • Allows greater cable distances without a repeater 

Fiber optic cabling offers the following disadvantages

  • Very expensive
  • Difficult to work with
  • Special training required to attach connectors to cables

True or false: Multi-mode and single mode fiber cables are distinct from each other and not interchangeable.
true
Single mode fiber cables.

  • Transfers data through the core using a single light ray (the ray is also called a mode)
  • The core diameter is around 10 microns
  • Supports a large amount of data
  • Cable lengths can extend a great distance

multi-mode fiber cables: Facts

  • Transfers data through the core using multiple light rays
  • The core diameter is around 50 to 100 microns
  • Cable lengths are limited in distance

Fiber optic cabling connector type – ST Connector

  • Used with single and multi-mode cabling
  • Keyed, bayonet-type connector
  • Also called a push in and twist connector
  • Each wire has a separate connector
  • Nickel plated with a ceramic ferrule to insure proper core alignment and prevent light ray deflection
  • As part of the assembly process, it is necessary to polish the exposed fiber tip to ensure that light is passed on from one cable to the next with no dispersion

Fiber optic cabling connector type – SC Connector

  • Used with single- and multi-mode cabling
  • Push on, pull off connector type that uses a locking tab to maintain connection
  • Each wire has a separate connector
  • Uses a ceramic ferrule to insure proper core alignment and prevent light ray deflection
  • As part of the assembly process, it is necessary to polish the exposed fiber tip

Fiber optic cabling connector type – LC Connector

  • Used with single- and multi-mode cabling
  • Composed of a plastic connector with a locking tab, similar to a RJ-45 connector
  • A single connector with two ends keeps the two cables in place
  • Uses a ceramic ferrule to insure proper core alignment and prevent light ray deflection
  • Half the size of other fiber-optic connectors

Fiber optic cabling connector type – MT-RJ Connector

  • Used with single and multi-mode cabling
  • Composed of a plastic connector with a locking tab
  • Uses metal guide pins to ensure it is properly aligned
  • A single connector with one end holds both cables
  • Uses a ceramic ferrule to insure proper core alignment and prevent light ray deflection

Several factors contribute to fiber optic signal loss:

  • Cable length
  • Connectors
  • Splices

loss budget
how much signal loss (measured in dB) you should reasonably expect in a certain distance of fiber optic cable
When calculating a loss budget for a segment of fiber optic cable, use the following guidelines:

 

  • Connectors: 0.3 dB loss each
  • Splices: 0.3 dB loss each
  • Multimode cabling:
    • 3 dB loss per 1000 meters (850 nm core diameter)
    • 1 dB loss per 1000 meters (1300 nm core diameter)
  • Single mode cabling:
    • 0.5 dB loss per 1000 meters (1310 nm core diameter)
    • 0.4 dB loss per 1000 meters (1550 nm core diameter)

Straight-through cable

 

[image]

Computers connect to the network through a hub or switch with a straight-through cable. There are two standards for creating straight-through cables:

  • T568A–To use this standard, arrange the wires from pins 1 to 8 in each connector in the following order: GW, G, OW, B, BW, O, BrW, Br.
  • T568B–To use this standard, arrange the wires from pins 1 to 8 in each connector in the following order: OW, O, GW, B, BW, G, BrW, Br.

It doesn’t matter which standard you use, but once you choose a standard, you should do all your cables that way to avoid confusion during troubleshooting.

Cross over cable

 

[image]

Computers can connect directly to one another using a crossover cable. The easiest way to create a crossover cable is to arrange the wires in the first connector using the T568A standard and arrange the wires in the second connector using the T568B standard.

Ethernet specifications use the following pins (Tx is a pin used for transmitting and Rx is a pin used for receiving):

  • Pin 1: Tx+
  • Pin 2: Tx-
  • Pin 3: Rx+
  • Pin 4: Unused
  • Pin 5: Unused
  • Pin 6: Rx-
  • Pin 7: Unused
  • Pin 8: Unused

Be aware of the following when making cables for Ethernet:

  • Use a crimping tool designed for RJ-45 connectors to attach connectors to UTP cable.
  • Cat 5/5e/6/6a cables come with wires that have solid cores or stranded cores. Use solid core cables for longer runs inside walls or the ceiling; use stranded wires for drop cables where flexibility and frequent movement occurs.
  • There are different connectors rated for solid or stranded core wires; be sure to use the correct connector type.
  • To reduce crosstalk, keep the pairs twisted as much as possible right up to the connector.
  • Making Cat 6-compliant cables is difficult; if you do not add the connectors exactly right, the cable will only function as a Cat 5 cable. In most cases it would be easier to buy cables of the correct length than to try and make your own.

Demarcation point (demarc) facts:

  • Typically, the LEC is responsible for all equipment on one side of the demarc, and the customer is responsible for all equipment on the other side of the demarc.
  • The demarc is also called the minimum point of entry (MPOE) or the end user point of termination (EU-POT).
  • The demarc is typically located in the bottom floor of a building, just inside the building. For residential service, the demarc is often a small box on the outside of the house.
  • For business installations, the demarc is often identified by an orange plastic cover on the wiring component.

Demarcation point (demarc) definition
When you contract with a local exchange carrier (LEC) for data or telephone services, they install a physical cable and a termination jack onto your premises. The demarcation point (demarc) is the line that marks the boundary between the telco equipment and the private network or telephone system.
Main Distribution Frame (MDF) definition

The main distribution frame (MDF) is the main wiring point for a building. The MDF is typically located on the bottom floor or basement. The LEC typically installs the demarc to the MDF.

Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF) definition

An intermediate distribution frame (IDF) is a smaller wiring distribution point within a building. IDFs are typically located on each floor directly above the MDF, although additional IDFs can be added on each floor as necessary.

Demarc extension definition
As its name implies, a demarc extension extends the demarcation point from its original location to another location within the building.
demarc extension facts

  • The demarc extension typically consists of a single wire bundle that attaches to the existing demarc and supplies a termination point to a different location.
  • You might need a demarc extension if your network occupies an upper floor of a building. The LEC will typically install the demarc into the MDF on the bottom floor, and you will need to install an extension to place the demarc into the IDF on your floor.
  • You are typically responsible for installing the demarc extension, or the LEC might do it for an additional charge.

Vertical cross connect definition
A vertical cross connect connects the MDF on the main floor to IDFs on upper floors. Cabling runs vertically (up and down) between the MDF and the IDFs.
Horizontal cross connect definition
A horizontal cross connect connects IDFs on the same floor. Cabling runs horizontally (sideways) between the IDFs.
25 pair cables
consist of 25 pairs of copper wires in a single bundle (containing a total of 50 wires).
25 pair cables are often used for
telephone installations that have multiple telephone lines, to replace multiple Cat3/5/5e/6 cables in a single bundle, and for horizontal and vertical cross connects between the MDF and IDFs.
Individual wires within the 25 pair cable use the following color coding scheme:

    A total of 10 colors are used in two different groups:
        Group 1 colors are white, red, black, yellow, and violet.
        Group 2 colors are blue, orange, green, brown, and slate.
    There are 5 wires of each color.
    Every colored wire in group 1 is paired with each color in group 2. For example, you will have the following pairs for the white wires:
        White with blue
        White with orange
        White with green
        White with brown
        White with slate
    Instead of using solid colors, some schemes use striped wires to uniquely identify each wire and its matching wire. For example, the white wire with a blue stripe is twisted with the blue wire with a white stripe, and the red wire with the orange stripe is twisted with the orange wire with the red stripe.

 

100 pair cable consists of
100 pairs of copper wires in a single bundle (containing 200 wires).
100 pair cable facts

  • 100 pair wires use the same coloring scheme as 25 pair wires, repeated 4 times.
  • Each bundle of 25 wires is often wrapped together with a colored nylon string to h

66 block definition
a punchdown block used for connecting individual copper wires together.
66 block facts

  • The 66 block has 25 rows of four metal pins. Pushing a wire into the pin pierces the plastic sheath on the wire, making contact with the metal pin.

two different 66 block configurations:

  • With the 25 pair block (also called a non-split block), all 4 pins are bonded (electrically connected). Use the 25 pair block to connect a single wire with up to 3 other wires.
  • With the 50 pair block (also called a split block), each set of 2 pins in a row are bonded. The left pin is connected with the middle left pin, while the right pin is connected with the middle right pin. Use the 50 pair block to connect a single wire to one other wire.
  • With a 50 pair block, use a bridge clip to connect the left two pins with the right two pins. Adding or removing the bridge clip is an easy way to connect wires within the row for easy testing purposes.

66 blocks are used primarily for ??????. When used for ??????, then :

66 blocks are used primarily for telephone applications. When used for data applications:

 

Be sure to purchase 66 blocks rated for Cat5.

  • When inserting wires in the block, place both wires in a pair through the same slot to preserve the twist as much as possible.

 

110 block definition
is a punchdown block used for connecting individual wires together.
110 block facts

  • The 110 block comes in various sizes for connecting pairs of wires (for example 50, 100, or 300 pair).
  • The 110 block has rows of plastic slots. Each plastic slot connects two wires together: C-4 connectors connect four pairs of wires; C-5 connectors connect five pairs of wires.
  • Place the first wire in the plastic slot on the 110 block.
  • Insert a connecting block over the wire and slot. The connecting block has metal connectors that pierce the plastic cable sheath.
  • Place the second wire into the slot on the connecting block.
  • When connecting data wires on a 110 block, you typically connect wires in the following order:
  • White wire with a blue stripe, followed by the solid blue wire.
  • White wire with an orange stripe, followed by the solid orange wire.
  • White wire with a green stripe, followed by the solid green wire.
  • White wire with a brown stripe, followed by the solid brown wire.

 

Use ???? to remember the wire order, and remember to start with the ??? first.
Use BLOG (BLue-Orange-Green) to remember the wire order, and remember to start with the white striped wire first.
10 blocks can be used for ??????, and are better suited for ???. When using 110 blocks for ????, be sure to ??????.

10 blocks can be used for both telephone and data, and are better suited for Cat5 installations. When using for Cat5 wiring, be sure to preserve the twists in each wire pair to within one-half of an inch of the connecting block.

patch panel definition and example
A patch panel is a device that typically connects individual stranded wires into female RJ-45 connectors. For example, you might connect 4 pairs of wires from a punchdown block to a port on the patch panel. On the patch panel, you then connect drop cables (cables with RJ-45 connectors) to the patch panel on one end and a computer on the other end.
Use a punch down tool to insert wires into

66 or 110 blocks.

The punch down tool pushes the wire into the block and ??????.
Be sure to position the blade on the ??????.
The blade for a 66 block is ??????, while the blade for a 110 block has ??????.

  • The punch down tool pushes the wire into the block and cuts off the excess wire.
  • Be sure to position the blade on the side of the clip towards the end of the wire.
  • The blade for a 66 block is straight, while the blade for a 110 block has a notch in the blade.

A network adapter (also called a ?????? or a ??????) connects a ?????? to the ??????
A network adapter (also called a network interface card or NIC) connects a host to the network medium.
The network adapter is responsible for converting ?????? into a format to be sent on the ??????.
The network adapter is responsible for converting binary data into a format to be sent on the network medium.
A transceiver is

responsible for converting digital data into digital signals to be sent on the medium. The type of signal the transceiver sends depends on the type of network. A fiber optic NIC sends light signals, an Ethernet NIC sends electronic signals on a wire, and a wireless NIC sends radio signals. To receive signals, the transceiver converts digital signals from the network to digital data for the PC.

A modem converts
binary data to analog waves (modulation) on the sending end, and then converts the analog waves back to binary data (demodulation) on the receiving end.
Transceiver modules include the following: A GBIC (gigabit interface converter) is
a larger-sized transceiver that fits in a port slot and is used for Gigabit media including copper and fiber optic.
Transceiver modules include the following: An SFP (small form-factor pluggable) is
similar to a GBIC but with a smaller size. An SFP is sometimes called a mini-GBIC.
Transceiver modules include the following: An XFP transceiver is
similar in size to an SFP but is used for 10 Gigabit networking.

Use a media converter to

 

connect a network adapter using one media type to another. For example, use a media converter to connect a server with a fiber optic Ethernet NIC to a copper Ethernet cable.

media converter facts

  • Media converters work at the Physical layer (Layer 1). Media converters do not read or modify the MAC address in any way.
  • Media converters only convert from one media type to another within the same architecture (such as Ethernet). A media converter cannot translate between two different architectures (instead, use a bridge or a router to do this). Converting from one architecture to another would require modifying the frame contents to modify the Data Link layer address.

The MAC address is

 

  • a unique hexadecimal identifier burned into the ROM of every Ethernet NIC.
  • a 12-digit (48-bit) hexadecimal number (each number ranges from 0-9 or A-F).
  •  often written as 00-B0-D0-06-BC-AC or 00B0.D006.BCAC, although dashes, periods, and colons can be used to divide the MAC address parts.
  • guaranteed unique through design. The first half (first 6 digits) of the MAC address is assigned to each manufacturer. The manufacturer determines the rest of the address, assigning a unique value which identifies the host address. A manufacturer that uses all the addresses in the original assignment can apply for a new MAC address assignment

Devices use the MAC address to

  • send frames to other devices on the same subnet.

Before two devices can communicate, they must know the ?????? of the receiving device.
Before two devices can communicate, they must know the MAC address of the receiving device.
Hosts use the ?????? to discover the MAC address of a device from its IP address.
Hosts use the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to discover the MAC address of a device from its IP address.
To find the MAC address of the recipient:

The sending device sends out a broadcast frame: All hosts on the subnet process the broadcast frame, looking at the destination IP address.

  • The destination MAC address is all F’s (FFFF:FFFF:FFFF).
  • The sending MAC address is its own MAC address.
  • The destination IP address is the known IP address of the destination host.
  • The sending IP address is its own IP address.

If the destination IP address matches its own address, the host responds with a frame that includes its own MAC address as the sending MAC address.
The original sender then reads the MAC address from the frame and associates the IP address with the MAC address, saving it in cache.

Hosts use the ?????? to find the IP address of a host with a known MAC address.
Hosts use the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) to find the IP address of a host with a known MAC address.
Once the sender knows the MAC address of the receiver,
it sends data in frames addressed to the destination device.

  • Frames include a ?????? which is used to detect frames that have been corrupted during transmission.

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

Network adapters are Layer ? devices because they ??????.

 They are also Layer ? devices because they must ??????, and because they read the ??????.

Network adapters are Layer 1 devices because they send and receive signals on the network medium. They are also Layer 2 devices because they must follow the rules for media access, and because they read the physical address in a frame.

A hub is the central connecting point of a physical ????, logical ??? topology.

A hub is the central connecting point of a physical star, logical bus topology.

Hubs manage communication among hosts using the following method:

  • A host sends a frame to another host through the hub.
  • The hub duplicates the frame and sends it to every host connected to the hub.
  • The host to which the frame is addressed accepts the frame. Every other host ignores the frame.

 

Hubs are Layer ??? devices; they simply ??? without examining the ??? in the ???.
Hubs are Layer 1 devices; they simply repeat incoming frames without examining the MAC address in the frame.
A bridge is

a device that connects two (or more) media segments on the same subnet, and filters traffic between both segments based on the MAC address in the frame. A bridge builds a database based on MAC addresses to make forwarding decisions.

Bridge process

  • The process begins by examining the source MAC address of an incoming frame. If the source address is not in the forwarding database, an entry for the address is made in the database associating the MAC address with the media segment.
  • The destination address is then examined.
    • If the destination address is not in the database, the frame is sent out on all segments except for the one on which it was received.
    • If the destination address is in the database, the frame is forwarded to the appropriate segment if the segment is different than the one on which it was received.
    • Broadcast frames are forwarded to all segments except the one on which they were received.

You should be aware of the following regarding bridges:

  • Bridges are used to separate one part of the subnet from another. This keeps the network from wasting bandwidth by eliminating unnecessary traffic between segments.
  • All segments connected to a bridge are on the same subnet, and share a common subnet address.
  • Bridges can also connect two segments that use different types of network architecture. For example, a bridge can connect a segment using Ethernet with a segment using 802.11 wireless.
  • Bridges operate at the OSI Layer 2; they read the MAC address contained in a frame to make forwarding decisions.
  • Frame forwarding happens independently of the upper-layer protocols (such as TCP/IP).

A switch is
a multiport bridge that performs filtering based on MAC addresses in addition to providing additional features not found in a bridge.
Switch Facts

  • While most bridges can only process a single frame at a time, switches can process multiple frames simultaneously.
  • Switches offer guaranteed bandwidth to each switch port.
  • Switches can make additional forwarding decisions based on the MAC address. For example, a switch can be configured to only accept frames from specific MAC addresses.
  • Like bridges, switches operate at Layer 2.
  • Unmanaged switches are autonomous in their function, requiring no port management or configuration. Managed switches allow administrators to change the port configurations, including the following:
    • Port speed
    • Filters based on network adapter MAC addresses

A wireless access point is
a hub for a wireless network, with hosts using radio waves instead of wires for communications.
wireless access point facts

  • A wireless access point is like a hub in that any message sent to any wireless host connected to the access point can be received by all other wireless hosts.
  • A wireless access point is a Layer 2 device; it can read the Data Link layer address in a frame.
  • A wireless access point is often configured as a bridge, connecting a wireless segment to a wired segment. Both wireless and wired hosts are on the same subnet.
  • Many wireless access points are combination devices that include a wired hub or switch or even a router.

which of the following cable types often includes a solid plastic core?

 

Category five, category six, category three, category 5e

the correct answer is category six. Category six cables include a solid plastic core that keeps the twisted pair separated and prevents the cable from being bent too tightly.

which of the following situations might you use an RJ-11 connector

 

you want to connect the 10BaseT network card in your computer to a switch.

 

You want to connect your computer to the Internet with a dial-up connection.

 

You want to upgrade your 10BaseT network to 100BaseT

 

You want to test a network cable to see if there is a break in the line.

the correct answer is you want to connect your computer to the Internet with a dial-up connection. RJ-11 connectors are typically used for telephones and modems.

when would you typically use an RJ 11 connector?

 

when using category three cables.

 

When using single mode fiber optic cables

 

When using RG-six cables

 

When using category five or higher cables

 

when connecting a phone to a phone line

 

When using multimode fiber optic cables.

 

the correct answer is when connecting a phone to a phone line. In RJ 11 connector is used for connecting analog telephones to the telephone jacks. Category three category five and higher twisted pair cables use RJ-45 connectors. Coaxial cables use Skype or BNC connectors. Fiber optic cables is a variety of connectors (RC,  RT, LC, MT-RJ).

which of the following applications is more likely to justify the investment in category six cable?


Streaming video, printing, e-mail, instant messaging

the correct answer is streaming video.category six cable is specified to extend the available bandwidth from 100 MHz to 200 MHz. This serves as the basis for greater capacity, throughput and reliability. Producing high-quality streaming multimedia easily requires consistent high-speed network bandwidth. E-mail and messaging are typically low bandwidth applications consisting of small brief transmissions. Printing typically consists of greater amount of data being transferred, however printing is highly amenable to delays and buffering and usually will not suffer any noticeable effects with decreased bandwidth.

you are installing network wiring for a new ethernet network at your company’s main office building. The project specifications call for category five unshielded twisted pair network cabling and RJ-45 wall jacks. In the end of your project, you run out of wire before the last few rounds are complete. You have a spool of category three network cable in storage. Upon investigation, it appears very similar to category five wiring. should you substitute category three cabling for category five cabling to finish the project?


No, the sheath surrounding category five cable is much thicker; creating an extra layer of shielding to reduce crosstalk and support higher data rates.


Yes, you can substitute category five wiring with category three wiring as they are electrically identical.


No, category five cabling has more twists per inch than category three cabling to reduce crosstalk and support higher data rates.


No, category three cabling doesn’t support RJ-45 connectors.


No, category five cabling uses a thicker copper wire that category three cable; enabling higher data transmission rates



the correct answer is No, category five cabling has more twists per inch than category three cabling to reduce crosstalk and support higher data rates. while category three and category five cabling may appear for similar physically, they are electrically different. Category five cabling is twisted much tighter than category three cabling. This reduces crosstalk and enables category five wiring to support much faster data transmission rates

you are adding new wires in your building for some new offices. The building has a false ceiling that holds the lights. You would like to run your ethernet cables in this area. Which type of cable must you use?

 

Category 5e or category 6E, fiber optic, PVC, Plenum,  STP,

and the correct answer is plenum. Plenum cable is fire resistant and non-toxic; it must be used when wiring above ceiling tiles. PVC cable cannot be used to wire up of ceilings because it is toxic when burned. Category 5E cables provide better EMI protection than category five cables, and category 6e cables are an improvement over category six specifications, but neither are a requirement for using any ceiling area. If that area has a lot of EMI, you might consider using STP or fiber optic cables, but this would not be a requirement just because wires were in a ceiling area. Typically you can avoid EMI sources by rerouting cables.

you have just signed up for a broadband home Internet service that uses coaxial cable. Which connector type will you most likely use?


ST, RJ-45, SC, F-type, RJ-11, BNC,

the correct answer is F-type. you said F type connector for broadband cable connections that use coaxial cable. Use a BNC connectors for 10BaseT ethernet networks. Using RJ 11 connector for modem connections to a phone line. Using RJ-45 connector for an ethernet network that uses twisted pair cable. Use ST and SC connectors for fiber-optic cables.

of the following cables, which offerthe best protection against EMI?

 

category 5E, category five, category 6e, RG-6

the correct answer is RG-6. coaxial cable offers better protection against EMI then twisted-pair cables. Coaxial cable has a mesh conductor which provides a ground and protects against EMI. In general, the higher the twisted pair cable standard, the better protection against some forms of EMI (typically Crosstalk). For twisted-pair, use shielded twisted pair instead of unshielded twisted pair. Use fiber optic for the best protection against EMI.

F type connectors are typically used with cables using which of the following standards? (Select two.)

 

RG-6, RG-59, category 5E, RG-58, category 6E, category five

the correct answers are rg-6, rg-59. f-type connectors are used with coaxial cable, and are typically used for cable TV and satellite installations using RG-six or RG-59 cables. RT 58 cables typically use BNC connectors and cables and are used for 10Base2 ethernet. Category five, category 5e and 6e cables use RJ-45 connectors.

you have a small home network connected to the Internet using RG-6 cable. You need to move the router connecting the network to the Internet, but can’t find any RG-6 cable. Which cable types could use instead?

 

RG-8

 

RG-8, RG-58, RG-59

 

RG-59

 

RG-58 OR RG-59

RG-58

 

RG-8 or RG-58


the correct answer is RG-59, RG six-impedance rating of 75 ohms. When using coaxial cables, it is important to use cables with the same impedance rating. Only RG 59 is rated for 75 ohms. RG-8 and RG 58 are rated for 50 ohms.

which of the following are characteristics of coaxial network cable? (Choose three.)


It uses RJ-45 connectors


It has two concentric metallic conductors


the conductors within the cable are twisted around each other to eliminate Crosstalk


it has a conductor made from copper in the center of the cable.


The ends of the cable must be terminated.


It uses two concentric conductors made from plastic or glass which conduct light signals.


It is composed of four pairs of 22gauge copper wire


the correct answers are it has two concentric metallic conductors, it has a conductor made from copper in the center of the cable, & the ends of the cable must be terminated. coaxial cable is composed of a central copper conductor surrounded by an insulator which is then surrounded by a second metallic mesh conductor. The name coaxial is derived from the fact that both of these conductors share a common axis. When using coaxial cable, both ends of the cable must be terminated.

which of the following cable classifications are typically used for cable and satellite networking with coaxial cables? (Select two.)

 

RG 6, RG 8, RG 58, RG 59,

the correct answers are RG 6 and RG 59. both RG six and RG 59 can be used for cable and satellite networking applications, although RG six has less signal loss then RG 59, and is a better choice for networking applications,especially where longer distances (over a few feet) are involved. Both RG six and RG 59 had an impedance rating of 75 ohms. RG eight and RG 58 have impedance rating of 50 ohms and are used with 10 Mbps ethernet.

which of the following are advantagesof using fiber-optic cabling for a network, as opposed to other types of cabling? (Select two.)

 

faster installation, immunity to electromagnetic interference, greater cable distances without a repeater, lower installation costs

the correct answers are immunity to electromagnetic interference and greater cable distances without a repeater. Compared to other types of cabling, fiber optic cabling allows greater cable distances without a repeater and is immune to electromagnetic interference. However, installation costs more and takes longer.

which of the following connectors usually require polishing as part of the assembly process? (Select two.)

 

AUI, IDC, ST, BNC, SC

the correct answers are ST and SC. the fiber optic cable assembly process is more complex than other assemblies. It is necessary to polish the exposed fiber tip to ensure that light is passed on from one cable to the next with no dispersion.

which of the following is true about single mode fiber optic network cabling?

 

It transmits multiple rays of light concurrently.

 

the central core is composed of braided plastic or glass fibers.

 

it doesn’t support segment lengths as long as that supported by multimode fiber optic cabling.

 

It’s less expensive than multimode fiber-optic cabling.

the correct answer is the central core is smaller than that of multimode fiber-optic cabling. single mode fiber optic cabling transmits a single Ray (or mode) of light through glass or plastic fiber. It supports longer transmission distances and multimode fiber-optic cable and is also more expensive. It also has a central core that is much smaller than that of multimode fiber-optic cabling.

Which of the following connectors is used with fiber optic cables and connects using a twisting motion?

 

F-type, BNC, LC, SC, ST

the correct answer is ST. the ST connector is used with fiber-optic cable and uses a twist type connector. Tip: to remember the difference between ST and SC connectors, associate the T and ST with “twist”. SC and LC connectors are used with fiber-optic cables but plug in instead of twist. F-type and BNC connectors use a twist to connect, but are used with coaxial cables.

which of the following are characteristics of a LC fiber optic connector? (Choose two.)


They use a housing and latch system similar to a RJ-45 unshielded twisted pair connector.


They use a one-piece bayonet connecting system.


they use a stainless steel housing.


They are half the size of standard connectors.


They can be used with either fiber optic or copper cabling.


they are threaded.

the correct answer is they use a housing and latch system similar to an RJ-45 unshielded twisted pair connector and they are half the size of standard connectors. LC fiber optic connectors are small; about half the size of other fiber optic connectors. Their appearance is similar to a typical RJ-45 connector used with unshielded twisted pair wiring. like an RJ-45 connector, it uses a small latch to lock the connector in a jack.

which of the following connectors are used with fiber-optic cables and include both cables in a single connector? (Select two)

 

LC, MT-RJ, BNC, SC, ST

the correct answers are LC & MT-RJ. both the LC and MT-RJ connectors have both fiber-optic cables in a single connector. ST and SC connectors hold a single strand of fiber-optic cable. A cable using either connector has two connectors on each end. A BNC connector is used with coaxial cable.

which of the following forms of optical fiber would usually be used to connect two buildings across campus from each other, which are several kilometers apart?


Multimode, dual-mode, fiber channel mode, single mode

the correct answer is single mode. In this scenario, use  single mode fiber optic cables. Fiber optic is graded as single mode or multimode. Single mode consists of a single very core which produces fewer reflections. This provides greater effective bandwidth over greater distances. MultiMode is less costly than single mode fiber. Multimode transmits multiple light rays concurrently. Multimode is used to transmit over shorter distances as the race tend to disperse as transmission distance increases. Fiber channel is a network topology used in storage area networks.

of the following cables, which offer the best protection against electromagnetic interference?

 

Category 5E, RG-six, single mode fiber optic, category five

the correct answer is single mode fiber optic. Fiber optic cables offer the best protection against electromagnetic interference

which of the following are characteristics of an MT-RJ fiber optic connector? (Select two.)

 

They can be used with multimode fiber optic cables

 

They use a keyed bayonet

 

They use a nickel plated housing

 

They use metal guide pins to ensure accurate alignment.

 

they are used with multi-fiber fiber optic ribbon cables

 

they must never be used with single mode fiber optic cables.

 

 

the correct answers are they can be used with multimode fiber optic cables and they use metal guide pins to ensure accurate alignment. MT-RJ connectors can be used with either multimode or single mode fiber optic cabling. The connector is made from plastic and use metal guide pins to ensure it is properly aligned in the Jack.

what tool should you use to extend network services beyond the demarc?

 

media certifier, tone generator, punch down tool, crimper

the correct answer is Punch down tool. a demarc is the location where the local network and the telephone company’s network begins. This location is easily at a punch down block and a wiring closet. Use a punch down tools to attach wires to a punch down block.

which of the following is used to terminate individual wires for my 25 pair or 100 pair cable using female RJ-45 ports.

 

horizontal crossconnect, 110 block, 66 block, patch panel

the correct answer is patch panel. A patch panel is a device that typically connects individual stranded Wires into female RJ-45 connectors. For example, you might connect four pairs of wires from a punch down block to a port on the patch panel. On the patch panel, you then connect drop cables (cables with RJ-45 connectors) to the patch panel on one end and a computer on the other end. use 66 and 110 blocks to connect individual wires within a wiring closet. These punch down blocks connect individual wires together, but do not terminate in RJ-45 connectors. A horizontal crossconnect connects IDFs on the same floor.

which of the following methods would you use to create a crossover cable?


use the T568B standard.


Use the T568B standard on one connector, and the BLOG convention on the other connector.

 

Use the T568A standard on one connector, and the BLOG convention on the other connector.


Use the T568A standard


Use the T568A standard on one connector, and the T568B convention on the other connector.



the correct answer is use the T568A standard on one connector, and the T568B standard on the other connector. The easiest way to create a crossover cable is to arrange the wires in the first connector using the T568A standard and arrange the wires in the second connector using the T568B standard. A crossover cable connects the transmit pins on one connector to the receive pins on the other connector (pin 1 to pin 3 and pin 2 to pin 6).

you have a network that occupies all three floors of the building. The WAN service provider has installed the line for the wide-area network service into the building in a wiring closet on the main floor. You have a wiring closet on the two remaining floors directly above the wiring closet on the main floor. What would you use to connect the wiring closets together?


Smart Jack, demark extension, horizontal crossconnect, vertical crossconnect

the correct answer is vertical crossconnect. a vertical crossconnect connects the main distribution frame (MDF) on the Main floor to intermediate distribution frames (IDF) on upper floors. Cabling runs vertically (up-and-down) between the MDF and the intermediate distribution frames. A horizontal crossconnect connects intermediate distribution frames on the same floor a smart jack is a special loopback plug installed at the demarcation point for a wide area network service. Technicians at the central office can send diagnostic commands to the smart jack to test conductivity between the central office and the D Mark. A deep mark extension extends the demarcation point from its original location to another location within the building. The D Mark extension typically consists of a single wire bundle that attaches to the existing D Mark and supplies a termination point to a different location. You might need a D Mark extension if your network occupies an upper floor of the building.

you are building network cables and attaching RJ-45 connectors to each end. Which tools do you need for this task?


Needle nose pliers, punch down tool, crimping tool, vampire taps

the correct answer is crimping tool. You should use a crimping tool designed for RJ-45 connectors to attach connectors to unshielded twisted pair cable.

which of the following uses metal clips placed over plastic slots for connecting individual copper wires?

 

100 pair, 110 block, 66 block, 25 pair

the correct answer is 110 block. a 110 block is a punch down block that uses metal clips fitted over plastic pins. When connecting wires using a 110 block, place the wires in the plastic slots, attach the metal clip, then punch down the connecting cable off the top of the clip.

 

a 66 block uses metal pins for connecting wires. Wires are placed in the pins, and pins within a row are electrically connected.

 

25 pair and 100 pair are cable bundles that include multiple pairs of copper wires (either 25 pairs of wires or 100 pairs of wires).

you are connecting Cat5e cables to it 110 block. In what order should you connect the wires to follow standard wiring conventions.

 

white/blue, blue, white/orange, orange, white/green, green, white/brown, brown

 

White/green, green, white/orange, blue, white/blue, orange, white/brown, brown

 

White/orange, orange, white/green, blue, white/blue, green, white/brown, brown

 

White/brown, brown, white/blue, blue, white/orange, orange, white/green, green

 

 

The correct answer is white/blue, blue, white/orange, orange, white/green, green, white/brown, brown

 

When connecting data wires by 110 block, you typically connect wires in the following order:

 

White wire with a blue stripe, followed by the solid blue wire.

White wire with an orange stripe, followed by the solid orange wire.

White wire with a green stripe, followed by the solid green wire

white wire with the brown stripe, followed by the solid brown water.

 

Tip: use BLOG (blue-Orange-green) to remember the wire order, and remember to start with the white striped wire first. When adding RJ-45 connectors to a drop cable, use one of the following orders, based on the standard you want to follow:

 

T568A-to use this standard, arrange the wires from pins  1 to 8 in each connector in the following order:

 

T568A-to use this standard, arrange the wires from pins 1 to 8 in each connector in the following order: GW, G, OW, B, BW, O, BrW, Br.

T568B-to use a standard, arrange the wires from pins 1 to 8 in each connector in the following order: OW, O, GW, B, BW, G, BrW, Br.

 

when using  110 blocks for connecting cat5 and higher data cables, which recommendation should you follow?

 

connect wires using the T568A standard.

 

Use C-5 connectors.

 

Keep wire pairs twisted up to within one half of an inch of the connector.

 

Connect wires using the T 568B standard.

 

the correct answer is keep wire pairs twisted up to within one half of an inch of the connector. when using for cat5 (or higher) wiring, be sure to preserve the twists in each wire pair to within one half of an inch of the connecting block. Use C-4 connectors to connect four pairs of wires. When connecting data wires on a 110 block, you typically connect wires in the following order:

 

white wire with a blue stripe, followed by the solid blue wire.

White wire with an orange stripe, followed by the solid orange wire.

White wire with green stripe, followed by the solid green wire

white wire with the brown stripe, followed by the solid Brown wire.

you are working with 25 pair wires and 66 blocks. You push the wires onto the 66 block, but now need to cut off the excess end of each wire. which tool should you use?

 

Butt set

 

Punch down tool

 

Snips

 

Cable stripper

the correct answer is Punch down tool. use a Punch down tool to push wires into 66 or 110 blocks and cut wires at the same time. The punch down tool has a blade on one side that cuts off the excess wires. use snips to cut cables or wires. However, a punch down tool would be easier to use for this task then wire snips. Use a cable stripper to remove the plastic covering for a cable. Note: when making drop cables or using punch down blocks, do not remove the plastic covering for individual wires. Use a butt set to connect to phone lines to monitor, make or answer phone calls.

which pins in an RJ-45 connector are used to transmit data when used on a 100 based in ethernet network?

 

pin one, pin two, pin three, pin four, pin five, pin six, pin seven, pin eight

the correct answer is pin 1 and pin 2. on a 100 base T network cable, the RJ-45 pinouts are as follows:

 

Pin 1: Tx+

Pin 2: Tx-

Pin 3: Rx+

Pin 4: Unused

Pin 5: Unused

Pin 6: Rx-

Pin 7: Unused

Pin 8: Unused

 

for a 100 base T cable, pins one and two are used to transmit data; pins three and six are used to receive data.

 

you are making ethernet drop cables using cat5e cable and RJ-45 connectors. You need to remove the plastic coating of the cable to expose the individual wires. Which tool should you use?

 

snips, butt set, cable stripper, punch down tool

the correct answer is cable stripper

 

use cable stripper to remove the plastic covering for a cable. Note: when making drop cables or using punch down blocks, do not remove the plastic covering for individual wires. use snips to cut cables. Use a punch down tool to push wires into 66 or 110 blocks and cut wires at the same time. Use a butt set to connect to phone lines to monitor, make or answer phone calls.

you have a network that occupies all three floors of a building. The wide-area network service provider has installed the line for the WAN service into the building in a wiring closet on the main floor. You have a second wiring closet on the main floor. You need to connect the two wiring closets. Which of the following are typically used to connect the two wiring closets? (Select two.)

 

vertical crossconnect, 25 pair, horizontal crossconnect, smart jack, demark extension

the correct two answers are demarc extension and horizontal crossconnect


a horizontal crossconnect connects wiring closets on the same floor. 25 pair or 100 pair wiring punched down into 66 or 110 blocks are often used to connect the wiring closets together.


A vertical crossconnect connects the intermediate distribution frame to the main distribution frame on a different floor.


The demarcation point is the line that marks the boundary between the telco equipment and the private network or telephone system. A demarc extension extends the demarcation point from its original location to another location within the building. A smart Jack is a special loopback plug installed at the demarcation point for a WAN service. Technicians at the central office can send diagnostic commands to the spark plug to test conductivity between the central office and the demarc

 

 

you want to use the T568A standard for adding connectors to your cat five cable. Starting with ipin one,which order should use the wires within the connector?

 

white orange, orange, white green, green, white blue, blue, white Brown, brown

 

white/blue, blue, white/orange, orange, white/green, green, white/brown, brown

 

White/orange, orange, white/green, blue, white/blue, green, white/brown, brown

 

White/green, green, white/orange, blue, white/blue, orange, white/brown, brown

the correct answer is white/green, green, white/orange, blue, white/blue, orange, white/brown, brown

 

The T 568A standard uses the following order of wires and the connector: white/green, green, white/orange, blue, white/blue, orange, white/brown, brown.

 

The T 568B standard switches the orange and green wires (along with their corresponding white wires). Use the order blue orange green brown (BLOG), with the white wire first, for connecting wires on a 110 punch down block.

you have a network that occupies the top floor of a three-story building. The WAN service provider has installed the line for the WAN service into the building in a wiring closet on the main floor. What would you use to relocate the WAN line into a wiring closet on your floor?

 

demarc extension, 66 block, horizontal crossconnect, 110 block, smart Jack

the correct answer is demarc extension.a demarc extension extends the demarcation point from its original location to another location within the building. The demarc extension typically consists of a single wire bundle that attaches to the existing demarc and supplies a termination point to a different location.  You might need a demarc extension if your network occupies an upper floor of the building. The LEC will typically install the demarc into the main distribution frame on the bottom floor and you will need to install an extension to place the demarc in the IDF on your floor.

 

He’s 66 and 110 blocks to connect individual wires within the wiring closet. These blocks can be used to connect devices to the when service wiring, but are not typically used for installing demarc extension.

which of the following terms identifies the wiring closet in the basement or a ground floor that typically includes a demarcation point?

 

Horizontal crossconnect, smart Jack, MDF, 110 block, IDF

the correct answer is MDF. the main distribution frame is the main wiring point for building. The MDF is typically located on the bottom floor or basement. The LEC typically installs the demarc to the MDF.

you are preparing to attach wires in a 110 block. You want to connect the wires and trim off the excess at the same time. which of the following should you do? (Select two)

 

use punch down tool with a straight blade.

 

Point the cut side of the tool towards the connected end of the wire.

 

Use a butt set with clips

 

use a but set with a Jack

 

Point the cut side of the tool towards the wire end

 

Use a punch down tool with a notch blade

the correct answer is point the cut side of the tool towards the wire end and use a punch down tool with a notched blade.

 

Use a punch down tool to connect wires to a 110 or a 66 block. When using a punch down tool, choose the right blade for the job:

 

Use a notched blade for a 110 block.

use a straight blade for a 66 block

for both blade types, you can use the end without a cutting blade if you want to punch down without cutting the wire. When using the cutting blade, point the cut side of the punch down tool towards the wire end that you want to trim.

you have a network that occupies both floors of the building. The wide area network service provider has installed the line for the wide area network service into the building in a wiring closet on the main floor. You have a second wiring closet on the second floor directly above the wiring closet that holds the demarc. Which of the following terms describes the closet on the second floor?

 

MDF, vertical crossconnect, horizontal crossconnect, IDF, Demarc extension

tthe correct answer is IDF.

 

An intermediate distribution frame (IDF) is a smaller wiring distribution point within a building. IDFs are typically located on each floor directly above the MDF, although additional IDFs can be added on each floor as necessary.

 

the main distribution frame is the main wiring point for a building. The main distribution frame is typically located on the bottom floor or basement. The LEC typically installs the demarc to the MDF. A vertical crossconnect connects the main distribution frame on the main floor to intermediate distribution frames on upper floors. Cabling runs vertically (up and down) between the main distribution frame and the intermediate distribution frames. Horizontal crossconnect connects intermediate distribution frames on the same floor. Cabling runs horizontally  between the intermediate distribution frames. The demarc extension extends the demarcation point from its original location to another location within the building.

you want to use the T568B standard for addingconnectors to your cat five cable. Start with pin One, which order should use for the wires within the connector?

 

white/blue, blue, white/orange, orange, white/green, green, white/brown, brown

 

White/orange, orange, white/green, blue, white/blue, green, white/brown, brown

 

White/orange, orange, white/green, green, white/blue, blue, white/brown, brown

 

White/green, green, white/orange, blue, white/blue, orange, white/brown, brown

the correct answer is white/orange, orange, white/green, blue, white/blue, green, white/brown, brown

 

the T568B standard uses the following order of wires and the connector: white/orange, orange, white/green, blue, white/blue, green, white/brown, brown.

 

the T568A standard switches the green and orange wires (along with their corresponding white wires). Use the order blue orange green brown (BLOG), with the white wire first, for connecting wires on a 110 punch sunblock.

which of the following describes the point where the service providers responsibility ends and the customer’s responsibility begins for installing and maintaining wiring and equipment?

 

IDF, vertical crossconnect, punch down block, smart Jack, demarc

and the correct answer is demarc. when you contract with a local exchange carrier (LEC) for data and telephone services, they install a physical cable and termination Onto your premises. The demarcation point (demarc) is the line that marks the boundary between the telco equipment and the private network or telephone system.

Devices such as hubs, switches, and bridges connect multiple devices to the same network segment. Internetwork devices connect multiple networks or subnets together, and enable communication between hosts on different types of networks.

Devices such as ????, ????, and ???? connect multiple devices to the same network segment. ???? devices connect multiple ???? or ????together, and enable communication between hosts on ???? of networks.

A router is a device that connects two or more ??? or ???.
A router is a device that connects two or more network segments or subnets.
router facts

A router is a device that connects two or more network segments or subnets.

  • Each subnet has a unique, logical network address.
  • Routers can be used to connect subnets within a single LAN, or they can be used as gateways to connect multiple LANs together.
  • Routers can be used to connect networks with different architectures (such as connect an Ethernet network to a token ring network).

Routers forward packets to other networks by maintaining information about other networks in a database called a routing table. The routing table typically contains the address of all known networks and the next router in the path used to reach the destination network.

firewall facts

A firewall is a router with additional security features. Firewalls can be programmed with security rules to restrict the flow of traffic between networks.

  • A firewall can control the type of traffic allowed in to a network and the type of traffic allowed out of a network.
  • Rules set up on the firewall determine the types of permitted and prohibited traffic.
  • A firewall can be either hardware devices or software installed onto operating systems.

A firewall is a ???? with additional ??. Firewalls can be programmed with ??? to ???? the flow of traffic between networks.
A firewall is a router with additional security features. Firewalls can be programmed with security rules to restrict the flow of traffic between networks.
Layer 3 switch definition
A Layer 3 switch is a switch that is capable of reading Layer 3 (network) addresses and making switching decisions based on the network address to switch or route packets between subnets. A Layer 3 switch often provides better performance than a router, but does not support as many features as a router.
Routers, Firewalls and Layer 3 switchs all operate at the ?????? layer. Some ???? are also capable of operating at higher layers, making filtering decisions based upon information found in the upper OSI model layers.
Routers, Firewalls and Layer 3 switchs all operate at the Network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model. Some firewalls are also capable of operating at higher layers, making filtering decisions based upon information found in the upper OSI model layers.
Be aware of the following when it comes to routers

 

  • Both Data Link physical addresses and Network logical addresses are used to send packets between hosts on different subnets.
  • IP (Network layer) addresses are contained in the IP header; MAC (Data Link) addresses are contained in the Ethernet frame header.
  • A router uses the logical network address specified at the Network layer to forward messages to the appropriate network segment.
  • Data Link addresses in the frame change as the frame is delivered from hop to hop. At any point in the process, the Data Link destination address indicates the physical address of the next hop on the route. The Data Link source address is the physical address of the device sending the frame.
  • Network addresses remain constant as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. The Network addresses indicate the logical address of the original sending device and the address of the final destination device.

 

To send a message from one host to another on a different network, routers use the following process:

  1. The sending host prepares a packet to be sent. It uses its own IP address for the source Network layer address, and the IP address of the final receiving device as the destination Network layer address.
  2. The sending host creates a frame by adding its own MAC address as the source Physical layer address. For the destination Physical layer address, it uses the MAC address of the default gateway router.
  3. The sending host transmits the frame.
  4. The next hop router reads the destination MAC address in the frame. Because the frame is addressed to that router, it processes the frame.
  5. The router strips off the frame header and examines the packet destination address. It uses the routing table to identify the next hop router in the path.
  6. The router repackages the packet into a new frame. It uses its own MAC address as the source Physical layer address, and the MAC address of the next hop router for the destination Physical layer address.
  7. The router transmits the frame.
  8. The next hop router repeats steps 4 through 7 as necessary, until the frame arrives at the last router in the path.
  9. The last router in the path receives the frame and checks the destination IP address contained in the packet.
  10. Because the destination device is on a directly connected network, the router creates a frame using its own MAC address as the source address, and the MAC address of the destination device as the destination physical address.
  11. The router transmits the frame.
  12. The destination device receives the frame. Inside the packet it finds the destination address matching its own IP address, with the source IP address being that of the original sending device.

 

Ethernet uses one or more of the following networking topologies:

 

  • Physical ??????, logical ??????
  • Physical ??????, logical ??????
  • Physical ??????, logical ??????

  • Physical bus, logical bus
  • Physical star, logical bus
  • Physical star, logical star

Ethernet networking devices

Devices used on Ethernet networks include:

  • NICs with transceivers
  • Hubs
  • Switches
  • Routers

Ethernet transmission media

Ethernet supports the following cable types:

  • Unshielded twisted-pair cables (UTP) with RJ-45 connectors. This is the most common transmission medium used for Ethernet.
  • Fiber optic, most commonly used in high-speed applications such as servers or streaming media.
  • Coaxial for older Ethernet implementations (often called thinnet or thicknet networks).

 

Ethernet uses a ??????-based media access method called ??????
Ethernet uses a contention-based media access method called Carrier Sense, Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
Devices using CSMA/CD use the following process to send data.

  • Because all devices have equal access (multiple access) to the transmission media, a device with data to send first listens to the transmission medium to determine if it is free (carrier sense).
  • If it is not free, the device waits a random time and listens again to the transmission medium. When it is free, the device transmits its message.
  • If two devices transmit at the same time, a collision occurs. The sending devices detect the collision (collision detection) and send a jam signal to notify all other hosts that a collision has occurred.
  • Both devices wait a random length of time before attempting to resend the original message (called backoff).

 

Ethernet Devices with collision detection turned on operate in ??????; devices with collision detection turned off operate in ??????.

Devices with collision detection turned on operate in half-duplex mode; devices with collision detection turned off operate in full-duplex mode.

Half duplex mode description and bandwidth

Description Bandwidth
Half-duplex
  • Collision detection is turned on
  • The device can only send or receive in one direction at a time
  • Devices connected to a hub must use half-duplex communication
Up to the rated bandwidth (10 Mbps for 10BaseT, 100 Mbps for 100BaseT, etc.)

 

Full duplex mode description and bandwidth

Mode

Description

Bandwidth

Full

-duplex

· Collision detection is turned off 

· The device can send and receive at the same time 

· Requires full-duplex capable NICs 

· Requires switches with dedicated switch ports

 (a single device per port) 

Double the rated bandwidth (20 Mbps for 

10BaseT, 200 Mbps for 100BaseT, etc.)

 

Ethernet facts: Physical addresses

Ethernet devices are identified using the MAC address which is burned into the network interface card.

Ethernet facts: Frames

A frame is a unit of data that is ready to be sent on the network medium. Ethernet frames contain the following components:

  • The preamble is a set of alternating ones and zeroes terminated by two ones (i.e., 11) that marks it as a frame.
  • The destination address identifies the receiving host’s MAC address.
  • The source address identifies the sending host’s MAC address.
  • The data, or the information that needs to be transmitted from one host to the other.
  • Optional bits to pad the frame. Ethernet frames are sized between 64 and 1518 bytes. If the frame is smaller than 64 bytes, the sending NIC places “junk” data in the pad to make it the required 64 bytes.
  • The CRC (cyclic redundancy check) is the result of a mathematical calculation performed on the frame. The CRC helps verify that the frame contents have arrived uncorrupted.

Ethernet standards are defined by the work of the ??????  committee
Ethernet standards are defined by the work of the IEEE 802.3 committee

Ethernet Standard 10BaseT: Bandwidth, Cable Type & 

Maximum Segment Length

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum Length

10 Mbps (half duplex)
20 Mbps (full duplex)

Twisted pair (Cat3, 4, or 5)

100 meters

Ethernet Standard 10BaseFL: Bandwidth, Cable Type & 

Maximum Segment Length

 

Ethernet Standard 10BaseFL: Bandwidth, Cable Type & 

Maximum Segment Length


Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum Length

10BaseFL

10 Mbps  (full duplex)

Fiber Optic

 

1000 to 2,000 meters

 

Fast Ethernet Standard 100BaseTX: Bandwidth, Cable Type & 

Maximum Segment Length

 

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Max

Length

Fast Ethernet: 

100 Base Tx

100 Mbps (half duplex)
200 Mbps (full duplex)

Twisted pair 

(Cat5 or higher)

 Uses 2 pairs 

of wires

100 meters

Fast Ethernet: 100 Base Fx: Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max length

 

 

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Max

Length

Fast Ethernet:

 100 Base Fx

100 Mbps

 (half duplex)
200 Mbps 

(full duplex)

Fiber Optic

412 meters

2,000 meters

Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 BaseT: Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max length

 

 

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum 

Segment

Length

Gigabit 

Ethernet

1000BaseT

1,000 Mbps 

(half duplex)
2,000 Mbps 

(full duplex)

Twisted pair 

(Cat5 or higher)

100 meters

Gigabit Ethernet: 1000BaseCX (short copper): Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max length

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum

 Segment 

Length

Gigabit

 Ethernet

1000BaseCX

 (short copper)

1,000 Mbps

 (half duplex)
2,000 Mbps

 (full duplex)

Special

 copper

 (150 ohm)

25 meters, used within wiring closets

Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 Base Sx: Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max Segment length

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable 

Type

Maximum 

Segment 

Length

Gigabit

 Ethernet

1000BaseSX

 (short)

1,000 Mbps

 (half duplex)
2,000 Mbps

 (full duplex)

Fiber 

optic

220 to 550

 meters 

depending 

on cable

 quality

Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 Base Lx (long): Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max length

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum 

Segment 

Length

Gigabit 

Ethernet

1000BaseLX

 (long)

1,000 Mbps

(half duplex)
2,000 Mbps

(full duplex)

Twisted pair (Cat5e, 6, 

or 7)

550 meters 
5 kilometers 

10 Gigabit Ethernet10GBaseT

Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max length

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum 

Segment 

Length

10 Gigabit 

Ethernet

10GBaseT

10 Gbps 

(full duplex 

only)

Twisted

 pair 

(Cat5e, 6,

 or 7)

100 meters

10 Gigabit Ethernet: 10GBaseSR/10GBaseSW: Bandwidth, Cable Type

 and Max length

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable 

Type

Maximum 

Segment 

Length

10 

Gigabit 

Ethernet

10GBaseSR/

10GBaseSW

10 Gbps 

(full duplex

 only)

Multimode

fiber optic (with OM3 fiber)

300 meters

10 Gigabit Ethernet: 10GBaseLR/10GBaseLW

: Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max length

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum 

Segment 

Length

10 

Gigabit 

Ethernet

10GBaseLR/

10GBaseLW

10 Gbps 

(full duplex 

only)

Single-mode 

fiber optic

10 kilometers

10 Gigabit Ethernet: 10GBaseER/10GBaseEW

: Bandwidth, Cable Type and Max length

Category

Standard

Bandwidth

Cable Type

Maximum 

Segment 

Length

10 

Gigabit 

Ethernet

10GBaseER/

10GBaseEW

10 Gbps 

(full duplex

 only)

Single-mode 

fiber optic

40 kilometers

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

· The maximum cable length for UTP Ethernet “T” implementations is ??????  for all standards. 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

· The maximum cable length for UTP Ethernet “T” 

implementations is 100 meters for all standards. 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

·  Ethernet standards support a maximum of ????? hosts on a single subnet

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

·  Ethernet standards support a maximum of 1024 hosts on a single subnet

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

·  10GBase standards ending in W (i.e. 10GBaseSW) are used for ?????? implementations. 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

·  10GBase standards ending in W (i.e. 10GBaseSW)

 are used for SONET implementations. 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

·  You may also see ??? and ??? Ethernet implementations, 

both of which are older implementations using ???? cable. 

You will not be required to know these for the Network+ exam. 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

·  You may also see 10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet implementations, 

both of which are older implementations using coaxial cable. 

You will not be required to know these for the Network+ exam. 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

 

·  The ?????? standard can also be used 

with ??????, which increases the supported

 distance to ??? meters.

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

 

·  The 10GBaseSR standard can also be used with Optical 

Multimode 4 (OM4) fiber, which increases the supported distance 

to 400 meters.

When connecting Ethernet devices, it is important that the ?????? from one device are matched with the ?????? on the other device.
When connecting Ethernet devices, it is important that the transmit (Tx) wires from one device are matched with the receive (Rx) wires on the other device.

To help understand how to connect Ethernet devices together, 

be aware of the following:

 

Network interface cards in workstations and routers send 

data on the ??????? 

and expect to receive data on the ??????.

To help understand how to connect ethernet devices together, be aware of the following:

  • Network interface cards in workstations and routers send data on the transmit pins and expect to receive data on the receive pins.

To help understand how to connect Ethernet devices together, be aware of the following:

 

Between any two ports used for connecting devices to a hub 

or a switch, ?????? is automatically performed within the 

hub or the switch.

To help understand how to connect Ethernet devices together, be aware of the following:

 

Between any two ports used for connecting devices to a hub 

or a switch, crossing is automatically performed within the 

hub or the switch.

To help understand how to connect Ethernet devices together, be aware of the following:

 

?????? ports on hubs and switches are not crossed.

To help understand how to connect Ethernet devices together, be aware of the following:

 

Uplink ports on hubs and switches are not crossed.

Ethernet Cable type and Use: Straight-through cable

A straight-through cable connects each wire to the same pin on each connector (pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2, etc.). Use a straight-through cable when the crossover is performed with a hub or a switch. Use a straight-through cable when connecting the following devices:

  • Workstation to a regular port on a hub or switch
  • Router to a regular port on a hub or a switch
  • Regular port on a hub or switch to an uplink port on a hub or a switch

 

Ethernet Cable type and Use: Crossover cable

A crossover cable matches the transmit (Tx) wires on one connector with the receive (Rx) wires on the other connector. Use a crossover cable when crossing is not performed automatically, or when crossover is being performed twice. Use a crossover cable when connecting the following devices:

  • Workstation to a workstation, router to a router, or workstation to a router (in a back-to-back configuration)
  • Uplink port on a hub or a switch to an uplink port on a hub or a switch
  • Workstation or a router to the uplink port on a hub or a switch
  • Hub or switch using a regular port to a hub or a switch using the regular port

Ethernet Cable type and Use: Rollover cable

A rollover cable is a cable with an RJ-45 connector on one end and an RS-232 (serial) connector on the other end. Use a rollover cable to connect the serial port on a workstation to the console connector on a router or switch. You then run a terminal emulation program on the workstation to connect to the console of the router or switch to perform configuration and management tasks.  

A rollover cable might also have an RJ-45 connector on both ends, and then you use an adapter to convert from the RJ-45 connector to the serial cable. When terminated with an RJ-45 connector on both ends, the wires within the connectors are rolled over to the opposite connector as follows:

  • Pin 1 is connected to pin 8
  • Pin 2 is connected to pin 7
  • Pin 3 is connected to pin 6
  • Pin 4 is connected to pin 5

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices:

· As a general rule, use a ?????? cable when connecting two like

 devices; use a ?????? cable when connecting different devices or 

port types. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices:

· As a general rule, use a crossover cable when connecting two like

 devices; use a straight through cable when connecting different devices or 

port types.

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· When connecting devices, crossover must be performed ??????  times. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· When connecting devices, crossover must be performed an odd number of times. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

o If crossover is not performed by either device,

 use a ?????? to connect the devices. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

o If crossover is not performed by either device,

 use a crossover cable to connect the devices. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

o If crossover is performed by both devices, 

use a crossover cable to perform the crossing ?????? times. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

o If crossover is performed by both devices,

 use a crossover cable to perform the crossing three times. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

o If crossover is performed by one device, use a ?????? cable. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

o If crossover is performed by one device, use a straight-through cable. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

·For most installations, a ?????? cable is used from the hub

or switch in the wiring closet to the wall plate in an office,

and ????? is used between the wall plate and the workstation.

 Crossing is performed at ???? or ??????, not at any of the cables

 connecting the workstation to ?????

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

·For most installations, a straightthrough cable is used from the hub

or switch in the wiring closet to the wall plate in an office,

and another straight-through cable is used between the wall plate and the workstation.

 Crossing is performed at the hub or the switch, not at any of the cables

 connecting the workstation to the hub or switch.

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· When buying pre-made cables, crossover cables often have a 

different ??????. However, you cannot rely only 

on the ?????? to tell the difference between a ?????? and a 

??????.

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· When buying pre-made cables, crossover cables often have a 

different jacket color (such as red). However, you cannot rely only 

on the cable color to tell the difference between a crossover and a 

straight-through cable.

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· To tell the difference between a crossover and a straight-through cable, place the ?????? side-by-side facing the

??????.


 

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· To tell the difference between a crossover and a straight-through cable, place the connectors side-by-side facing the

 same direction. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· To tell the difference between a crossover and a straight-through cable, place the connectors side-by-side facing the same 

direction. 

o If the wires are in the same order on both connectors, the 

cable is a ?????? cable. 

o If the wires are in a different order, the cable is a ??????

 cable. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· To tell the difference between a crossover and a straight-through cable, place the connectors side-by-side facing the same 

direction. 

o If the wires are in the same order on both connectors, the 

cable is a straight-through cable. 

o If the wires are in a different order, the cable is a crossover 

cable. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· On some hubs and switches, the uplink port has a button or switch

 which lets you ?????? or ??????

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· On some hubs and switches, the uplink port has a button or switch

 which lets you use it as a regular port (with crossing) or an uplink port

 (without crossing). 

 

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· On some hubs and switches, the uplink port is shared with ?????. You can use either port, but not at the same time. 

 

 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· On some hubs and switches, the uplink port is shared with one 

regular port. You can use either port, but not at the same time. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· Some hubs and switches include ?????? in ?????? to 

identify ports that perform ??????. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· Some hubs and switches include the letter X in the port labeling to 

identify ports that perform crossing. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· Many newer hubs and switches use ?????? which senses 

the cable type used and performs crossing (or not) based on the cable. 

For these devices, you do not need to be concerned with which cable 

you use. 

Be aware of the following when connecting Ethernet network devices: 

· Many newer hubs and switches use Auto-MDI/MDIX which senses 

the cable type used and performs crossing (or not) based on the cable. 

For these devices, you do not need to be concerned with which cable 

you use. 

An IP address:

  • Is a ?????? number represented as ??????. Each ?????? is separated by a period.

 

An IP address:

  • Is a 32-bit binary number represented as four octets (four 8-bit numbers). Each octet is separated by a period.

  • IP addresses can be represented in one of two ways:
    • ?????? In ?????? notation, each ?????? must be between ?????? and ??????.
    • ??????. In ?????? notation, each ???? is an ??????.

  • IP addresses can be represented in one of two ways:
    • Decimal (for example 131.107.2.200). In decimal notation, each octet must be between 0 and 255.
    • Binary (for example 10000011.01101011.00000010.11001000). In binary notation, each octet is an 8-character number.

To convert from binary to decimal, memorize the decimal equivalent to the following binary numbers:

10000000 01000000 00100000 00010000 00001000 00000100 00000010 00000001
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

For each bit position with a 1 value, add the decimal values for that bit together. For example, the decimal equivalent of 10010101 is:

For each bit position with a 1 value, add the decimal values for that bit together. For example, the decimal equivalent of 10010101 is:
128 + 16 + 4 + 1 = 149

The IP address includes both the ????? and the ??????.
The IP address includes both the network and the host address.

The subnet mask is a ?????? that is associated with each ?????? that identifies the ??????. In binary form, the subnet mask is always a ?????? followed by a ?????? . A simple mask might be ??????.

The subnet mask is a 32-bit number that is associated with each IP address that identifies the network portion of the address. In binary form, the subnet mask is always a series of 1’s followed by a series of 0’s (1’s and 0’s are never mixed in sequence in the mask). A simple mask might be 255.255.255.0.

IP addresses have a default ??????. The ?????? identifies the ?????? and a ?????? used for the ??????.
IP addresses have a default class. The address class identifies the range of IP addresses and a default subnet mask used for the range.

the default address class for each IP address range.Class A

Class

Address Range

First Octet Range

Default 

Subnet Mask

A

1.0.0.0 to 

126.255.255.255

1-126
(00000001–01111110

 binary)

255.0.0.0

the default address class for each IP address range.Class B

Class

Address Range

First Octet Range

Default 

Subnet 

Mask

B

128.0.0.0 to 

191.255.255.255

128-191
(10000000–10111111 

binary)

255.255.0.0

the default address class for each IP address range.Class C

Class

Address Range

First Octet Range

Default

 Subnet 

Mask

C

192.0.0.0 to 

223.255.255.255

192-223
(11000000–11011111

 binary)

255.255.255.0

the default address class for each IP address range.Class D

Class

Address Range

First Octet Range

Default

 Subnet

 Mask

D

224.0.0.0 to 

239.255.255.255

224-239
(11100000–11101111 

binary)

n/a

 

 

the default address class for each IP address range.Class E

 

 

Class

Address Range

First Octet Range

Default 

Subnet 

Mask

E

240.0.0.0 to 

255.255.255.255

240-255
(11110000–11111111

 binary)

n/a

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts 

per subnet: Class A

There are only ?????? Class A network IDs (most of these addresses are 

already assigned). Each class A address gives you ?????? hosts per 

network.

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts 

per subnet: 

There are only 126 Class A network IDs (most of these addresses are 

already assigned). Each class A address gives you 16,777,214 hosts per

 network.

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts 

per subnet:  

· There are ????? Class B network IDs. Each class B address gives 

you ????? hosts per network. 

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts 

per subnet:  

· There are 16,384 Class B network IDs. Each class B address gives 

you 65,534 hosts per network.

 

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts 

per subnet:  

· There are ?????? Class C network IDs. Each class C address gives

 you ??? hosts per network.

 

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts 

per subnet:  

· There are 2,097,152 Class C network IDs. Each class C address gives

 you 254 hosts per network.

 

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts

 per subnet:  

· Class D addresses are used for ?????? rather than ??????. 

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, you

have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts per subnet:  

· Class D addresses are used for multicast groups rather than network 

and host IDs. 

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts

 per subnet:  

· Class E addresses are reserved for ??????. 

When using the default subnet mask for an IP address, 

you have the following number of subnet addresses and hosts 

per subnet:  

· Class E addresses are reserved for experimental use. 

As you are assigning IP addresses to hosts, be aware of the 

following special considerations:


Network address consideration

Address

Consideration

Network

The first address in an address range is used 

to identify the network itself. For the network

 address, the host portion of the address contains

 all 0’s. For example: 

Class A network address: 115.0.0.0 

Class B network address: 154.90.0.0 

Class C network address: 221.65.244.0 

As you are assigning IP addresses to hosts, be aware of the 

following special considerations: Broadcast address

Address

Consideration

Broadcast

The last address in the range is used as the 

broadcast address and is used to send messages 

to all hosts on the network. In binary form, the 

broadcast address has all 1’s in the host 

portion of the address. For example, assuming 

the default subnet masks are used: 

115.255.255.255 is the broadcast address for 

network 115.0.0.0 

154.90.255.255 is the broadcast address for 

network 154.90.0.0 

221.65.244.255 is the broadcast address for

 network 221.65.244.0 

The broadcast address might also be designated 

by setting each of the network address bits to 

0. For example, 0.0.255.255 is the broadcast 

address of a Class B address. This designation

 means “the broadcast address for this network.”

As you are assigning IP addresses to hosts, be aware of the

following special considerations: Host addresses

When you are assigning IP addresses to hosts, be aware of 

the following: 

Each host must have a unique IP address. 

Each host on the same network must have an IP address with a

 common network portion of the address. This means that

 you must use the same subnet mask when configuring

 addresses for hosts on the same network. 

The range of IP addresses available to be assigned to 

network hosts is identified by the subnet mask and/or the

 address class. When assigning IP addresses to hosts, be 

aware that you cannot use the first or last addresses in 

the range (these are reserved for the network and 

broadcast addresses respectively). For example: 

For the class A network address 115.0.0.0, the host range 

is 115.0.0.1 to 115.255.255.254. 

For the class B network address 154.90.0.0, the host

 range is 154.90.0.1 to 154.90.255.254. 

For the class C network address 221.65.244.0, the host 

range is 221.65.244.1 to 221.65.244.254. 

A special way to identify a host on a network is by 

setting the network portion of the address to all 0’s.

 For example, the address 0.0.64.128 means “host 64.128 

on this network.”

As you are assigning IP addresses to hosts, be aware of the 

following special considerations: Local Host

Address

Consideration

Local Host

Addresses in the 127.0.0.0 range are reserved to refer 

to the local host (in other words “this” host or the 

host you’re currently working at). The most commonly-used 

address is 127.0.0.1 which is the loopback address.

The ????? manages the assignment of IP addresses on the Internet. They are operated by the ?????.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the assignment of IP addresses on the Internet. IANA is operated by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
IANA allocates blocks of IP addresses to ?????? . An ??????  has authority for IP addresses in ??????.
IANA allocates blocks of IP addresses to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). An RIR has authority for IP addresses in a specific region of the world.
An RIR assigns a block of addresses to ??????
An RIR assigns a block of addresses to Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
Subnetting is the process of ??????
Subnetting is the process of dividing a large network into smaller networks
When you subnet a network, each ?????? (called a ??????) has a different ?????? (also called a ??????).
When you subnet a network, each network segment (called a subnet) has a different network address (also called a subnet address).
In practice, the terms network and subnet are used interchangeably to describe a ?????? with a unique ??????
In practice, the terms network and subnet are used interchangeably to describe a physical network segment with a unique network address.
subnetting is necessary because all network architectures have a ?????? allowed on a ??????.
subnetting is necessary because all network architectures have a limit on the number of hosts allowed on a single network segment. As your network grows, you will need to create subnets (physical networks) to:
As your network grows, you will need to create subnets (physical networks) to:

  • Increase the number of devices that can be added to the LAN (to overcome the architecture limits)
  • Reduce the number of devices on a single subnet to reduce congestion and collisions
  • Reduce the processing load placed on computers and routers
  • Combine networks with different media types within the same internetwork (subnets cannot be used to combine networks of different media type on to the same subnet)

Subnetting uses ?????? rather than the ?????? subnet masks
Subnetting uses custom rather than the default subnet masks
Using custom subnet masks is often called ??????  because the subnet mask cannot be inferred simply from the ??????. The ?????? is ignored and the mask is always supplied to identify the ?????? and ?????? of the address.

  • Using custom subnet masks is often called classless addressing because the subnet mask cannot be inferred simply from the class of a given IP address. The address class is ignored and the mask is always supplied to identify the network and host portions of the address.

When you subnet a network by using a custom mask, you can ?????? between ??????. However, you also ?????? on each network.
When you subnet a network by using a custom mask, you can divide the IP addresses between several subnets. However, you also reduce the number of hosts available on each network.
The following table shows how a Class B address can be subnetted to provide additional subnet addresses. Notice how by using a custom subnet mask the Class B address looks like a Class C address.

 

Default Example

Custom Example

Network Address

188.50.0.0

188.50.0.0

Subnet Mask

255.255.0.0

255.255.255.0

# of Subnet Addresses

One

254

# of Hosts per Subnet

65,534

254 per subnet

Subnet Address(es)

188.50.0.0 (only one)

188.50.1.0
188.50.2.0
188.50.3.0
(and so on)

Host Address Range(s)

188.50.0.1 to 188.50.255.254

188.50.1.1 to 188.50.1.254
188.50.2.1 to 188.50.2.254
188.50.3.1 to 188.50.3.254
(and so on)

Be aware of the following additional facts about custom subnet masks: 

· While subnetting divides a large address space into multiple subnets,

 supernetting ??????.

Be aware of the following additional facts about custom subnet masks: 

· While subnetting divides a large address space into multiple subnets,

 supernetting combines multiple smaller network addresses into a single 

larger network. For example, this allows multiple Class C addresses to 

be combined into a single network.

 

Be aware of the following additional facts about custom subnet masks: 

Classful addresses are IP addresses that use ??????. 

They are ?????? because the default subnet mask is used to identify

 the network and host portions of the address. Classless addresses are

 those that ??????

 

Be aware of the following additional facts about custom subnet masks: 

· Classful addresses are IP addresses that use the default subnet mask. 

They are classful because the default subnet mask is used to identify

 the network and host portions of the address. Classless addresses are

 those that use a custom mask value to separate network and host 

portions of the IP address.

 

a host wants to send a message to another host with the IP address 115.99.80.157. IP does not know the hardware address of the destination device. Which protocol can be used to discover the Mac address?

 

ICMP, DHCP, BOOTP, DNS, ARP, IGMP

the correct answer is address resolution protocol (ARP).

 

hosts use the address resolution protocol to discover the hardware address of a host.

at which OSI model layer does a media converter operate?

 

layer 1, layer 2, layer 3, layer 4

the correct answer is  layer 1. A media converter operates at the OSI model layer 1 (physical layer). The media converter translates frames into bits and transmits them on the transmission medium. At layer 2, the Mac address is added to make the data into a frame. At layer 3, the IP address is added to the packet. A media converter does not alter or use the Mac address or the IP address.

which of the following is a valid Mac address?

 

34-9A-86-1G-B3-24

83-5A-5B-0B-31-55-F1

255.255.255.0

192.168.12.15

C0-34-FF-15-01-8E

73-99-12-61-15

the correct answer is C0-34-FF-15-01-8E. A Mac or hardware address is a unique identifier hardcoded on every network adapter card. A valid Mac address has a total of 12 hexadecimal numbers. Hexadecimal numbers contain the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters A to F. Valid values in the Mac address range anywhere from 00 to FF. Note that one of the answers would be a valid MAC address except it uses a G value, which is beyond the range of a hexadecimal number.

Which of the following is true about the Mac address? (Select two.)?

 

It is a 64-bit address.

It is a 48 bit address.

It is a 32-bit address.

It is typically represented by hexadecimal numbers.

It is typically represented by octets of decimal numbers between zero and 255.

The correct answers are it is typically represented by hexadecimal numbers and it is a 48 bit address.

 

TThe  Mac address identifies the physical address of the network adapter. The Mac address is a 12 digit (48 bit) hexadecimal number (each number ranges from 0 to 9 or A through F.) The address is often written as 00-B0-D0-06-DC-AC or 00B0.D006.BCAC, although dashes, periods, and colons can be used to divide the Mac address part.

 

An IPv4 address is 32 bits and use octets of decimal numbers between zero and 255. An IPv6 address is a 64-bit address that uses 32 hexadecimal numbers.

What type of module might a switch use to allow it to modify the media type supported by switch port? (Select two.)

 

GBIC, SFP, MPLS, OC-x

 

The correct answers are GBIC & SFP. Older network adapters used an external transceiver that matched the media type. While nearly all current network adapters come with a built-in transceiver type, new devices, such as switchers and routers, use transceiver modules that allow you to modify the media type of report by changing the transceiver.

 

Transceiver modules include the following:

 

A GBIC  (gigabit interface converter ) is a larger sized transceiver that fits in a port slot and is used for gigabit media including copper and fiber-optic.  

 

A SFP (small form factor pluggable) is similar to a GBIC but with a smaller size. A SFP is sometimes called a mini-GBIC.

 

An XFP transceiver is similar in size to a SFP but is used for 10 Gb networking.

You have a server that has a 100 base FX network interface card that you need to connect to a switch. The switch only has 100 base TX switch ports. Which device should you use? Repeater, media converter, Gateway, hub, bridge

The correct answer is media converter. Use a media converter to convert from one media type to another media type within the same architecture. Use a bridge to connect two devices that use different network architectures, for example to connect a wired network to wireless clients. A hub or a repeater connect devices using the same media type.

Which of the following statements accurately describes how a modem works? (Select two.)

 

It Demodulates analog PC data into digital data that can be transmitted through a telephone network.

 

It communicates over a telephone network using digital signals.

 

It Demodulates analog data from a telephone network into digital PC data.

 

It modulates digital data from a telephone network into analog data that a PC can use.

 

 It modulates digital data from the PC into analog data and transmits it on a telephone network.

 

 It transmits digital signals over ordinary telephone copper wiring at a rate of up to 128 kb per second.

 

 

 

The correct two answers are it Demodulates analog data from a telephone network into digital PC data & it modulates digital data from the PC into analog data and transmits it on a telephone network.

 

Modem is shorthand for modulator/demodulator. It’s job is to convert (or modulate) digital data from a PC into analog telephone signals and transmit them through a telephone network. It also receives analog data from the telephone network and converts (or demodulated) into digital PC data.

Which of the following best describes how a switch functions?

 

It connects multiple segments of different architectures. It translates frames, and broadcasts them to all of its ports.

 

It connects multiple cable segments (or devices), and forward frames to the appropriate segment.

 

It connects multiple cable segments (or devices), and broadcast frames to all of its ports.

 

It connects multiple segments of different architectures. It translates frames, and forwards them to the appropriate segment.

The correct answer is It connects multiple cable segments (or devices), and forward frames to the appropriate segment.

 

Switches have multiple ports and can connect multiple segments or devices. The  switch forwards frames to the appropriate port. They function similarly to a hub, except instead of sending packets to all ports, switch send packets only to the destination computer port.

Which of the following devices operate at OSI model layer 2? (Select two.)

 

Repeater, switch, firewall, router, hub, network interface card

The correct two answers are switches and network interface cards.

 

A network interface card and a switch operate at layer 2 (datalink) of the OSI model.  Layer 2 includes protocols that define the Mac address.  The Mac address is burned into the network interface card,  and a switch uses the Mac address to make forwarding decisions.

 

A hub or a repeater operate at layer 1; they regenerate a signal without looking at layer 2 or layer 3 information. A router operates at layer 3, using the IP address to make forwarding decisions. A firewall operates at layer 3 or higher, using packet or data contents for making filtering decisions.

 

Your company purchases a new bridge, which filters packets based on the Mac address of the destination computer. On which layer of the OSI model is this device functioning?

 

Datalink,

 

presentation,

 

session,

 

transport

 

The correct answer is datalink. If the bridge filters packets based on the Mac address it must be operating at layer 2, the datalink layer because I don’t really know why I just know things that filter based on the Mac address do so at layer 2.

 

What Testout had to say underneath the answer was only that “the bridge is operating at the datalink layer “

 

Which of the following hardware devices regenerates the signal out of all connected ports without examining the frame or packet contents? Select two.

 

Router, bridge, switch, repeater, Gateway, hub

 

The correct answers are hub and repeater.

A hub and repeater send received signals out all other ports. These devices do not examine the frame or the packet contents. A switch or a bridge use the Mac address in a frame for forwarding decisions. A router uses the IP address in a packet for forwarding decisions.

 

 

Which three of the following devices operate at the data link layer of the OSI model?

 

Hubs, repeaters, switches, routers, bridges, network interface cards

 

 

 

 

The correct answers are switches & bridges & network interface cards. Network interface cards, bridges, and switches all operate at the OSI datalink layer. They use the physical device address (Mac address) to identify packets. Hubs and repeaters operate at the physical layer-they simply repeat packets without regard to addresses. Routers function at the network layer-they examine the logical device and network address to perform routing tasks

 

 

An access point that conforms to the IEEE 802.11 B standard acts most closely to what other networking device?

 

Router, gateway, patch bay, hub, terminal

 

no the term “patchbay” is not a screwup caused by Dragon NaturallySpeaking hearing me wrong. It actually said that.

 

 

The correct answer is hub. An access point functions like a hub by connecting multiple wireless hosts to a wired ethernet network.

 

 

Which of the following devices is used on a local area network and offers guaranteed bandwidth to each port?

 

Switch, bridge, router

 

 

 

the correct answer is switch. A switch offers guaranteed bandwidth to each port.

 

How do switches and bridges learn where devices are located on the network?

 

When a frame enters a port, the source Mac address is copied from the frame header.

 

When a frame enters a port, the destination Mac address is copied from the frame header.

 

When a frame enters a port, the destination IP address is copied from the frame header.

 

On a frame enters a port, the source IP address is copied from the frame header.

 

 

The correct answer is “when a frame enters a port, the source Mac address is copied from the frame header.”

 

Bridges and switches learn addresses by copying the Mac address of the source device and placing it into the Mac address table. The port number which the frame entered is also recorded in the table and associated with the source Mac address.

 

Switches and bridges cannot record the destination Mac address because it does not know the port that is used to reach the destination device. Bridges and switches operate at layer 2 and do not use IP addresses (which exist at layer 3).

 

An eight port switch receives a frame on port number one. The frame is addressed to an unknown device. What will the switch do?

 

Drop the frame,

 

send the frame out the destination port,

 

send the frame out all eight ports,

 

send the frame out ports 2 through 8

 

 

The correct answer is send the frame out ports 2-8. Because the switch does not know the port that is used to reach the destination device, it will send the frame out all ports except for the port on which the frame was received. After the switch learns the port that is used to reach the destination device, it will send the frame only out that port.

 

 

Which two of the following tasks do routers perform?

 

Control access to the transmission media

 

 route data based on logical network addresses

 

 identify devices through hardware addresses

 

 maintain information about paths through an internetwork

 

 multiplex signals onto the same transmission media

 

route data based on hardware device addresses

 

 

The correct answers are route data based on logical network addresses & maintain information about paths through an Internetwork.

 

Routers build and maintain tables of routes through an internetwork, and deliver data between networks based on logical network addresses.

 

 

Which of the following connectors is used with ethernet 10BaseT networks?

 

BNC,

 

 RJ-11,

 

15 pin D-shell,

 

RJ-45

 

 

The correct answer is RJ-45. RJ-45 connectors are used with Ethernet 10BaseT networks.

 

 

A network is connected following the IEEE 802.3 specifications. Which of the following best describes when a device can transmit messages?

 

The device listens to determine if the transmission media is free,

 

 the device is notified of its turn to send messages,

 

the device with the token can use the transmission media,

 

 the device transmits whenever it is ready,

 

the device requests permission from a controlling device

 

 

The correct answer is “the device listens to determine if the transmission media is free.”

 

 The IEEE 802.3 committee describes the CSMA/CD media access method. Devices listen to the network to determine if the transmission media is free before transmitting.

 

 

Which of the following physical topologies are used with ethernet networks? (Select two.)

 

Bus, star, mesh, ring

 

 

The correct answers are bus and star. Ethernet networks use either a physical bus or physical star topology. Hubs can also be cascaded to form a tree topology.

 

 

The media access control method all ethernet networks is

 

token passing

 

CSMA/CD

 

CSMA/CA

 

Polling

 

 

the correct answer is CSMA/CD. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is the media access control method of all ethernet networks.

 

 

Which of the following use the CSMA/CD access method? Select all that apply.

 

FDDI

 

1000BaseT

 

token ring

 

10BaseT

The correct answers are 10BaseT and 1000BaseT.

CSMA/CD Stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. It defines the steps network devices take one-two devices attempt to use a data channel simultaneously. Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD, including 10BaseT, 10Base2 and 1000 base T.

 

 

You are planning a network for an educational campus. Due to the size of the buildings and the distance between them

 

 you have elected to use 10BaseFL hubs,  cabling and network interface cards. What is the maximum length for the network cable between workstation and a hub?

 

412 m

 

 2000 m

 

 550 m

 

 220 m

 

 100 m

 

 1000 m

 

 

 

the correct answer is 2000 m. The maximum length for a 10 base FL network segment is 2000 m. Because a 10 base FL network uses a physical star topology, a segment is defined as one of the arms of the star, (between the hub and host). That means the fiber optic cable between a hub and a workstation can be up to 2000 m long. 100 base FX supports up to 412 m. 1000 base capital as capital acts and 1000 days LX support up to 550 m. 100 m is the maximum twisted-pair cable length.

 

The maximum length for a 10 base FL network segment is

 

2000 m.

The maximum length for a 100 base FX cable is

412 m.

 

the maximum 1000 base SX  cable length is

 

550 m
the maximum 1000 base LX  cable length is
550 meters

 

You have been tasked with designing an ethernet network. Your client needs to implement a very high-speed network backbone between campus buildings; some of which are around 300 m apart. Fiber optic cabling has already been installed between buildings. Your client has asked that you use the existing cabling that operates in full duplex. Which ethernet standard meets these guidelines? (Choose two.)

 

10 BaseFL

 

 1000 base CX

 

 10 G base SR

 

 1000 base SX

 

 1000 base T

 

the correct to answers are 10GBaseSR & 1000BaseSX. 10GBaseSR& 1000BaseSX can operate within these parameters. Both will support segment lengths 300 m long and operate using full-duplex. 10 baseFL isn’t a good choice because it’s data transmission rate is relatively slow. 1000 base CX and 1000 base T both use copper wiring.

 

Your network follows the 100 baseTx specifications for fast ethernet. What is the maximum cable segment length allowed?

 

500 m

 

 412 m

 

 2000 m

 

 1000 m

 

 100 m

 

the correct answer is 100 m. Fast ethernet using twisted-pair cables (either 100 base T 4 or 100 base Tx) has a maximum cable segment length of 100 m.

 

Tip: all ethernet networks that use twisted-pair cable (ethernet, fast ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet) have a distance limitation of 100 m.

Which of the following standards is used by SONET?

 

10GBaseER

1000BaseCX

1000BaseLX

1000BaseSX

10GBaseLW

 

The correct answer is 10GBaseLW. 10GBase standards ending in W are used for SONET implementations. These include 10GBaseSW (short), 10GBaseLW (long), and 10GBaseEW (extended). 10GBaseER is for extended fiber-optic but not used with SONET. 1000Base standards are not used for SONET. 1000 base CX is a copper cable specification.

 

 

You are working on upgrading the network in an older building. Over the years, the building has had Several types of networking cable installed. The network must support 1000 Mb per second Ethernet. You would like to minimize the cost of the upgrade by replacing cables only if necessary. Which types of cable must be replaced to support the required network speed? (Select two.)

 

Category three

 

 category four

 

 category five

 

 category 5E

 

 category six

 

 category 6E

 

The correct answers are category three and category four.

 

1000 Mb per second ethernet (gigabit ethernet) requires at least category five cables. While category five supports 1000 Mb per second, it can have poor performance during high data transfers. Whenever possible is better to use a higher grade cable (category 5E or category six) if you want 1000 Mb per second data transmission. Category three only supports 10 Mb per second ethernet. Category 5E or category six is required for 10 Gb per second ethernet.

 

 

 

Which of the following ethernet standards uses fiber-optic cabling? (Select two.)

 

1000BaseCX

 

100BaseT4

 

100bASEfx

 

100BaseTX

 

1000BaseLX

 

 

The two correct answers are 100 base FX and 1000 base LX. 100 base FX and 1000 base LX are ethernet standards that use fiber optic. Following the ethernet naming conventions:

 

F designates fiber optic cables. Ethernet standards with the F designation are 10 days FL and 100 base FX.

 

L designates “long” distances and requires fiber optic to support the distance. Ethernet standards with the L designation are 10BaseFL, 1000BaseLX, & 10GBaseLR.

 

S designates “short” distances that use fiber optic cables. Ethernet standards with the S designation are 1000 baseSX & 10GBaseSR.

 

T designates twisted pair cables. Ethernet standards with the T designation are 10BaseT, 100BaseTX, 100BaseT4, & 1000BaseT.

 

C designates copper cables. The 1000 base CX standard is for fast ethernet at short distances within wiring closets.

 

 

Following the ethernet naming conventions F designates

 

 

 

fiber optic cables. Ethernet standards with the F designation are 10 days FL and 100 base FX.
Following the ethernet naming conventions L designates

 

 

 

“long” distances and requires fiber optic to support the distance. Ethernet standards with the L designation are 10BaseFL, 1000BaseLX, & 10GBaseLR.

 

 

Following the ethernet naming conventions S designates

 

 

 

 “short” distances that use fiber optic cables. Ethernet standards with the S designation are 1000 baseSX & 10GBaseSR.

 

Following the ethernet naming conventions T designates

 

 

 

twisted pair cables. Ethernet standards with the T designation are 10BaseT, 100BaseTX, 100BaseT4, & 1000BaseT.

 

Following the ethernet naming conventions C designates

 

 

 

 copper cables. The 1000 base CX standard is for fast ethernet at short distances within wiring closets.

 

What topology is used with 100 base TX fast ethernet networks? (Select two.)

 

Physical star/logical bus

 

 Physical star/logical star

 

 physical ring/logical star

 

 physical star/logical ring

 

100BaseTX Fast Ethernet networks use a physical star/logical bus topology when he is used or a physical star/logical starwhen a switch is used.

 

Your network follows the 100 base FX specifications for fast Ethernet and uses half duplex cable. What is the maximum cable segment length allowed?

 

100 m

 

 412 m

 

 550 m

 

 1000 m

 

 

 

The correct answer is 412 m.

 2000 m

 

for 100Base FX, half duplex, multimode cable has a maximum segment length of 412 m.

 

1000BaseSX and 1000BaseLX support multimode cable up to 550 m. 10BaseFL supports fiber-optic cable between 1000 and 2000 m.

100Base FX, half duplex, multimode cable has a maximum segment length of
412 m.

 

1000BaseSX and 1000BaseLX support multimode cable up to

 

550 m.
10BaseFL supports fiber-optic cable between ???? & ?? meters
1000 and 2000 m.

 

You would like to implement 10 Gb per second ethernet over a distance of at least 10 km. Which of the following would meet the requirements for this implementation? (Select three.)

 

Multimode fiber

 

 single mode fiber

 

 10GBaseSR standards

 

 10GBaseER standards

 

 10GBaseLR standards

 

the correct answers are single mode fiber, 10GBaseER standards, 10GBaseLR standards. For 10 Gb per second ethernet at distances of 10 km or more, use single mode fiber optic cable. 10GBaseLR (up to 10 km) and 10GBaseER (up to 40 km) both support 10 Gb per second single mode fiber. Multimode fiber is cheaper but has a shorter maximum distance and single mode fiber. 10GBaseSR uses multimode fiber at distances up to 300 m.

 

Which gigabit ethernet standard can support a long network segments up to a maximum of 5 km when used with fiber optic cable?

 

1000BaseCX

 

1000BaseLX

 

1000BaseSX

 

1000BaseT

1000BaseLX supports segment lengths of up to 5 km when used with fiber optic cable. This maximum segment length is cut to 550 m when fiber optic cable is used and it operates in half duplex. 1000BaseSX supports segment lengths of only 550 m. 1000BaseCX uses copper wire and supports segment lengths of only 25 m. 1000BaseT uses twisted-pair cables.

 

 

With an ethernet 10 base T network, the maximum cable length between the computer and the hub is:

 

100 m

 

 100 feet

 

 500 feet

 

 185 m

 

 

 

the correct answer is 100 m. With ethernet 10 base T network, the maximum cable length between the computer and the hub is 100 m.

 

Which gigabit ethernet standard uses fiber optic cabling and support network segments for up to a maximum of 550 m long?

 

1000 base T

 

1000 baseZX

 

1000 baseSX

 

1000 baseCX

 

 

 

the correct answer is 1000 baseSX. The 1000 baseSX standard uses fiber optic cable with a maximum segment length of 550 m. However, to implement segments this long, you must use 50 micron, 500 MHz per kilometer fiber-optic cable. Other types of cable will shorten the maximum segment length. 1000 base FX also supports lengths up to 550 m. 1000 base FX supports distances up to 10 km. 1000 base ZX has a maximum segment length of up to 100 km. 1000 base CX and 1000 base T use copper cabling instead of fiber-optic.

 

You want to implement an ethernet network at very long distances using fiber-optic cables. Which standard and cable type would you choose? (Select two.)

 

Single mode fiber

 

 1000 base C X

 

 1000 base LX

 

 multimode fiber

 

 1000 base SX

 

The correct answers are single mode fiber and 1000 base LX

 

Of the standards listed in this question, 1000 base LX provides the greatest cable length (think of the “L” in 1000 base LX as “long”). When using long distances for fiber-optic, use single mode fiber. Multimode fiber is cheaper but has a short maximum distance than single mode fiber. 1000 base capital SX is for short fiber optic, and 1000 base CX use short copper within the wiring closet

 

Which type of cabling is used with 100 base TX fast ethernet networks?

 

Type 1A shielded twisted pair or category 5 unshielded twisted pair

 

type 5 shielded twisted pair or category 1 UTP

 

category 3UTP, category 4UTP, or category 5UTP

 

none of the above

 

the correct answer is type 1A STP or category five unshielded twisted pair can be used with 100 base TX fast ethernet network.

 

You have been tasked with designing a high-speed ethernet network. Your clients building already has 150 ohm shielded twisted pair wiring installed. Due to budget constraints, they have asked you to be use the existing wiring instead of installing new fiber optic cabling. Which ethernet standard could to implement in this situation?

 

1000BaseSX

 

1000BaseT

 

1000BaseZX

 

1000BaseLX

 

1000BaseCX

 

10BaseFL

the correct answer is 1000 base CX. 1000 base CX standard specifies 150 ohm shielded twisted pair cabling. The maximum cable length is 25 m. The 10 base FL, 1000 baseSX, 1000 baseLX, and 1000 base ZX standards employ fiber-optic cabling. 1000BaseT uses category five unshielded twisted pair instead of shielded twisted pair cabling.

 

Which of the following are requirements of the 1000BaseT ethernet standards? (Select three.)

 

The cable length must be less than or equal to 100 m

 

 SC or ST connectors

 

 fiber optic cable

 

 RJ-45 connectors

 

 the cable length must be less than or equal to 1000 m

 

 cat5 cabling

 

 

The correct answers are cat5 cabling, RJ-45 connectors, and the cable length must be less than or equal to 100 m. Gigabit Ethernet (1000 base T) has similar requirements to 100 base T with connectors, cabling, and distances. The network cards are simply assigned to transfer the data 10 times as fast.

 

The 10BaseT Ethernet Standard Category is
Ethernet

The 10BaseT Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

The 10BaseT Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

10Mbps & 20Mbps

 

 

The 10BaseT Ethernet Standard cable type(s) are

 

 

The 10BaseT Ethernet Standard cable type(s) are Twisted pair (cat3, 4, or 5)

 

The 10BaseT Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is
100 m

 

The 10BaseFL Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 10BaseFL Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

It’s a trick question. 10BaseFL is full duplex only and runs at 10 Mb per second

 

The 10BaseFL Ethernet Standard cable type(s) is/are

fiber-optic

 

The 10BaseFL Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

1000 – 2000 m depending on characteristics of the fiber-optic cable

The 10BaseFL Ethernet Standard Category is

 

Ethernet

 

The 100BaseTX Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

 Fast Ethernet

 

The 100BaseTX Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 100BaseTX Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

 

 

 

100 Mbps (half duplex)

 

 

 200 Mbps (full duplex)

 

The 100BaseTX Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

 

Twisted pair (Cat5 or higher) Uses 2 pairs of wires

 

 

 

The 100BaseTX Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

 

100 meters

 

The 100BaseFX Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

 

 Fast Ethernet

 

The 100BaseFX Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

The 100BaseFX Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

 

 

100 Mbps (half duplex)

 

 

 200 Mbps (full duplex)

 

 

The 100BaseFX Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

 

Fiber optic

 

The 100BaseFX Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

412 meters

 

2000 meters

 

 

I am not sure if the difference here is between full duplex and half duplex mode or if it has to do with other characteristics of the fiber-optic cable itself

 

 I am not sure of the difference here is based on half duplex or full duplex mode or if it has to do with other characteristics of the fiber-optic cable itself

 

The 1000BaseT Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

Gigabit Ethernet

 

 

The 1000BaseT Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 1000BaseT Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

 

 

 

1000 Mbps (half duplex)

 

 

2000 Mbps (full duplex)

 

The 1000BaseT Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

 

Twisted-pair Cat5 or higher

 

The 1000BaseT Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

 

100 meters

 

The 1000BaseCX (short copper) Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

 

 Gigabit Ethernet

 

The 1000BaseCX (short copper) Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 1000BaseCX (short copper) Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

 

 

 

1000 Mbps (half duplex)

 

 2000 Mbps (full duplex)

 

The 1000BaseCX (short copper) Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

Special Copper (150 ohm)

 

 

The 1000BaseCX (short copper) Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

25 meters, used within wiring closets

 

The 1000BaseSX (short) Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

 

 Gigabit Ethernet

 

The 1000BaseSX (short) Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 1000BaseSX (short) Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

1000 Mbps (half duplex)

 

 

2000 Mbps (full duplex)

 

The 1000BaseSX (short) Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

 

Fiber optic

 

The 1000BaseSX (short) Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

 

220 to 550 meters depending on cable quality

 

The 1000BaseLX (long) Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

 

 Gigabit Ethernet

 

 

 

 

The 1000BaseLX (long) Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 1000BaseLX (long) Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

 

1000 Mbps (half duplex)

 

2000 Mbps (full duplex)

 

 

The 1000BaseLX (long) Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

Fiber optic

 

The 1000BaseLX (long) Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

 

550 meters to 5km depending on cable quality

 

The 10GBaseT Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

10 Gigabit Ethernet

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseT Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 10GBaseT Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

 

 

10Gbps (full duplex only)

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseT Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

Twisted-pair (Cat 5e, six, or seven)

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseT Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

100 m

 

The 10GBaseSR/10GBaseSW Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

 

10 Gigabit Ethernet

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseSR/10GBaseSW Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

The 10GBaseSR/10GBaseSW Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

10Gbps (full duplex only)

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseSR/10GBaseSW Ethernet Standard cable type is

Multimode fiber optic (with OM3 fiber)

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseSR/10GBaseSW Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

300 m

 

The 10GBaseLR/10GBaseLW Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

 

 

10 Gigabit Ethernet

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseLR/10GBaseLW Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 10GBaseLR/10GBaseLW Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

 

 

 

 

10Gbps (full duplex only)

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseLR/10GBaseLW Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

 

 

Single mode fiber optic

The 10GBaseLR/10GBaseLW Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

10 km

 

The 10GBaseER/10GBaseEW Ethernet Standard Category is

 

 

 

10 Gigabit Ethernet

 

The 10GBaseER/10GBaseEW Ethernet Standard bandwidth in half duplex is

 

 

 

The 10GBaseER/10GBaseEW Ethernet Standard bandwidth in full duplex is

10Gbps (full duplex only)

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseER/10GBaseEW Ethernet Standard cable type is

 

 

 

 

Single mode fiber optic

 

 

 

 

The 10GBaseER/10GBaseEW Ethernet Standard maximum segment length is

 

 

 

 

40 km

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

  • The maximum cable length for UTP Ethernet “T” implementations is

100 meters for all standards.

 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:


 

·  Ethernet standards support a maximum of ?????? on a single subnet.

 

1024 hosts

 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

 

 

 

·  10GBase standards ending in ?????? are used for SONET implementations.

 

10GBase standards ending in W (i.e. 10GBaseSW) are used for SONET implementations

 

You should also know the following facts about Ethernet:

 

·  The 10GBaseSR standard can also be used with ?????? which increases the supported distance to ?????? meters.

 

Optical Multimode 4 (OM4) fiber, 400

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